Pyruvate → acetyl-CoA produces 1 NADH, 1 CO₂
The TCA cycle produces:
3 NADH, 1 FADH₂, 2 CO₂, 1 GTP per acetyl-CoA = 12 ATP/acetyl-CoA (2x everything per glucose)
TCA cycle reactions occur in the mitochondria.
α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex requires the same cofactors as the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (B₁, B₂, B₃, B₅, lipoic acid).