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350 terms

UIL Spelling & Vocabulary 2011-2012

Definitions with an * denote definitions not found in the Word Power book, but are necessary in understanding the word or the root of the word.
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a fortiori
For a still stronger reason; all the more. Used of a conclusion that is logically more certain than another.
abidance
Adherence; compliance; continuance.
Abu Dhabi
A sheikdom and city of eastern Arabia on the Persian Gulf. The city is the capital of the federated United Arab Emirates. With enormous oil revenues, the sheikdom has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.
acquittal
1. Judgment, as by a jury or judge, that a defendant is not guilty of a crime as charged.
2. The state of being found or proved not guilty.
aggravation
1. A source of continuing, increasing irritation or trouble.
2. Exasperation.
akimbo
1. In or into a position in which the hands are on the hips and the elbows are bowed outward.
2. Being in a bent, bowed, or arched position.
algorism
1. The Arabic system of numeration; the decimal system.
2. Computation with Arabic figures.
altercation
A vehement quarrel.
anacoluthon
An abrupt change within a sentence to a second construction inconsistent with the first, sometimes used for rhetorical effect.

Example: "I warned him that if he continues to drink, what will become of him?"
anaphylactic shock
A sudden, severe allergic reaction characterized by a sharp drop in blood pressure, urticaria, and breathing difficulties that is caused by the injection of a foreign substance, such as a drug or bee venom, into the body after a preliminary or sensitizing injection. The reaction may be fatal if emergency treatment, including the administration of epinephrine injections, is not given immediately.
androgynous
1. Having both female and male characteristics.
2. Being neither distinguishably masculine nor feminine, as in dress, behavior, or appearance; unisex.
anecdotal
A short account of a particular incident or event, especially of an interesting or amusing nature.*
anomaly
1. Deviation or departure from the normal or common order, form, or rule.
2. One that is peculiar, irregular, abnormal, or difficult to classify.
3. The angular deviation, as observed from the sun, of a planet from its perihelion.
anti-infective
Capable of preventing or counteracting infection.
antinome
One that is contradictory or contrary to another; an opposite.
appreciable
Possible to estimate, measure, or perceive.
Arikara
1a. A Native American people formerly inhabiting the Missouri River valley from Kansas into the Dakotas and now located in western North Dakota. Traditional life was based on agriculture and trade with the Plains Indians to the west.
1b. A member of this people.
2. The Caddoan language of this people.
ascetic
1. A person who renounces material conforts and leads a life of austere self-discipline, especially as an act of religious devotion.
2. Leading a life of self-discipline and self-denial, especially for spiritual improvement.
3. Pertaining to or characteristic of; self-denying and austere.
aspiration
1. Expulsion of breath in speech.
2. The act of breathing in; inhalation.
3. The process of removing fluids or gases from the body with a suction device.
4a. A strong desire for high achievement.
4b. An object of such desire; an ambition.
assigned
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate.
2. To select for a duty or office; appoint.
3. To give out as a task; allot.
4. To ascribe; attribute.
5. To transfer (property, rights, or interests) from one to another.
6. To place (a person or military unit) under a specific command.
au courant
1. Informed on current affairs; up-to-date.
2. Fully familiar; knowledgeable.
Auckland
The largest city of New Zealand, on an isthmus of northwest North Island. It is a major port and an industrial center. Metropolitan area population, 860,000.
avoirdupois
Weight or heaviness, especially of a person.
axenic
Not contaminated by or associated with any other living organisms. Usually used in reference to pure cultures of microorganisms that are completely free of the presence of other organisms.
balata
The nonelastic rubber obtained form the latex of the South American tree Manilkara bidentata. It has been used in the manufacture of golf-ball covers and machine belts.
baronial
1. Stately and grand.
2. A member of the lowest grade of nobility.*
3. An important financier or industrialist, especially one with great power in a particular area.*
bazooka
A shoulder-held weapon consisting of a long metal smoothbore tube for firing armor-piercing rockets at short range.
Bellerophon
The Corinthian hero who, with the aid of the winged horse Pegasus, slew the Chimera.
beryllium
A high-melting, lightweight, corrosion-resistant, rigid, steel-grey metallic element used as an aerospace structural material, as a moderator and reflector in nuclear reactors, and in a copper alloy used for springs, electrical contacts, and nonsparking tools.

Atomic number 4; atomic weight 9.0122; melting point 1,278° C; boiling point 2,970° C; specific gravity 1.848; valence electrons 2.
bresaola
Sliced salt-cured, air-dried beef that is dressed with olive oil, lemon juice, and black pepper before serving.
brio
Vigor; vivacity.
bucolic
1. Of or characteristic of the countryside or its people; rustic.
2. Of or characteristic of sheperds or flocks; pastoral.
3. A pastoral poem.
4. A farmer or sheperd; a rustic.
caïque
1. A long, narrow rowboat used in the Middle East.
2. A small sailing vessel used in the eastern Mediterranean.
calibrator
1. To check, adjust, or determine by comparison with a standard (the graduations of a quatitative measuring instrument).
2. To determine the caliber of (a tube).
capriccioso
In music, lively ad free. Used chiefly as a direction.
capriciousness
Characterized by or subject to whim; impulsive and unpredictable.
caseous
Resembling cheese.
catenate
To connect in a series of ties or links; form into a chain.
cathect
To concentrate emotional energy on (an object or idea).
caveat
1a. A warning or caution.
1b. A qualification of explanation.
2. A formal notice filed by an interested party with a court or officer, requesting the postponement of a proceeding until the filer is heard.
cerotype
The process of preparing a printing surface for electrotyping by first engraving on a wax-coated metal plate.
chanoyu
The Japanese tea ceremony, an ancient ritual for the preparation, serving, and drinking of tea.
charm quark
A quark with a charge of +2/3, a mass about 2,900 times that of the electron, and a charm of +1.
cilia
1. A microscopic hairlike process extending from the surface of a cell or unicellular organism. Capable of rhythmical motion, it acts in unison with other such structures to bring about the movement of the cell or of the surrounding medium.
2. An eyelash.
3. One of the hairs along the margin or edge of a structure, such as a leaf, usually forming a fringe.
cloche
1. A close-fitting women's hat with a bell-like shape.
2. A usually bell-shaped cover, used chiefly to protect plants from frost.
coeval
Originating or exiting during the same period; lasting through the same era.
collegiality
1. Shared power and authority vested among colleagues.
2. In the Roman Catholic Church, the doctrine that bishops collectively share power.
colossus
1. A huge statue.
2. Something likened to a huge statue, as in size or importance.
comportment
Bearing; deportment.
condonation
1. To disregard, especially the implied forgiveness of an offense by ignoring it.
2. To give tacit approval to.*
3. To pardon or forgive.*
congeries
A collection; an aggregation.
continuum
1. A continuous extent, succession, or whole, no part of which can be distinguished from neighboring parts except by arbitrary division.
2. In mathematics, a set having the same number of points as all the real numbers in an interval.
crampons
1. A hinged pair of curved iron bars for raising heavy objects, such as stones or timber.
2. An iron spike attached to the shoe to prevent slipping when walking on ice or climbing. In this case, also called climbing iron.
creditable
1. Deserving of often limited praise or commendation.
2. Worthy of belief.
3. Deserving of commercial credit; creditworthy.
4. That can be assigned.
credulous
1. Disposed to believe too readily; gullible.
2. Arising from or characterized by.
crewel
Loosely twisted worsted yarn for fancywork and embroidery.
cuesta
A ridge with a gentle slope on one side and a cliff on the other.
dariole
1. A small cooking mold.
2. A dish, as of vegetables, fish, custard, or pastry, that is cooked and served in a small mold.
debacle
1. A sudden, disastrous collapse, downfall, or defeat; a rout.
2. A total, often ludicrous failure.
3. The breaking up of ice in a river.
4. A violent flood.
decagon
A polygon with ten angles and ten sides.
declassification
To remove official security from (a document).
deficit spending
The spending of public funds obtained by borrowing rather than taxation.
definitive
1. Precisely defined or explicit.
2. Supplying or being a final settlement or decision; conclusive.
3. Authoritative and complete.
4. In biology, fully formed or developed, as an organ or structure.
5. In grammar, a word that defines or limits, such as a demonstrative pronoun.
deforestation
To cut down and clear away the trees or forests from.
demurrage
1. Detention of a ship, freight car, or other cargo conveyance during loading or unloading beyond the scheduled time of departure.
2. Compensation paid for such detention.
desicate
1. To dry out thoroughly.
2. To preserve (foods) by removing the moisture.
3. To make dry, dull, or lifeless.
détente
1. A relaxing or easing, as of tension between rivals.
2. A policy toward a rival nation or bloc characterized by increased diplomatic, commercial, and cultural contact and a desire to reduce tensions, as through negotiations or talks.
dicephalous
Having two heads.
dilettante
1. A dabbler in an art or a field of knowledge.
2. A lover of the fine arts; a connoisseur.
discommoded
To put to inconvenience; trouble.
dissension
Difference of opinion; disagreement.
distinguishable
1. To preserve as being different or distict.
2. To preserve distinctly; discern.
3. To make noticeable or different; set apart.
4. To cause (oneself) to be eminent or recognized.
doggerel
Crudely or irregularly fashioned verse, often of a humorous or burlesque nature.
dolce vita
A luxurious, self-indulgent way of life.
dragée
A small, often medicated candy.
dulcify
1. To make agreeable or gentle; mollify.
2. To sweeten.
dyad
1. Two individuals or units regarded as a pair.
2. In biology, one pair of homologous chromosomes resulting from the division of a tetrad during meiosis.
3. In chemistry, a divalent atom or radical.
4. In mathematics, an operator represented as a pair of vectors juxtaposed without multiplication.
Ecuador
A country of northwest South America on the Pacific Ocean. First occupied by the Spanish in 1534, the area achieved independence in 1830. Quito is the capital and Guayaquil the largest city. Population: 8,050,630.
efficacious
Producing or capable of producing a desired effect.
eland
Either of two large African antelopes (Taurotragus oryx or T. derbianus) having a light brown or grayish coat and spirally twisted horns.
electroshock
Administration of electric current to the brain through electrodes placed on the head in order to induce unconsciousness and brief convulsions, used in the treatment of certain mental disorders, especially acute depression. Also called electroshock or electroshock therapy.
en brochette
On a skewer.
ennead
A group or set of nine.
enokidake
A widely cultivated mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) native to North America and eastern Asia, having a pinlike appearance that superficially resembles the bean sprout. Also called golden needles.
epicycloid
The curve described by a point on the circumference of a circle as the circle rolls on the outside of the circumference of a second, fixed circle.
epidermis
1. The outer, protective, nonvascular layer of the skin of vertebrates, covering the dermis.
2. An integument or outer layer of various invertibrates.
3. The outermost layer of cells overing the leaves and young parts of a plant.
errata
An error in printing or writing, especially such an error noted in a list of corrections and bound into a book.
erudition
Deep, extensive learning.
euphoric
A feeling of great happiness or well-being.
excelsior
Slender, curved wood shavings used especially for packing.
exemplum
1. An example.
2. A brief story used to make a point in an argument or to illustrate a moral truth.
expatiate
1. To speak or write at length.
2. To wander freely.
extant
1. Still in existance; not destroyed.
2. Standing out; projecting (archaic).
Fascisti
The members of an Italian political organization that controlled Italy under the fascist dictatorship of Benito Mussolini from 1922 to 1943.
faun
In Roman mythology, any of a group of rural deities represented as having the body of a man and the horns, ears, tail, and sometimes legs of a goat.
Fenian
1. One of a legendary group of heroic Irish warriors of the second and third centuries A.D.
2. A member of a secret revolutionary organization in the United States and Ireland in the mid-19th century, dedicated to the overthrow of British rule in Ireland.
fermata
1. In music, the prolongation of a tone, chord, or rest beyond its indicated time value.
2. The sign indicating this prolongation.
flagitious
1. Characterized by extremely brutal or cruel crimes; vicious.
2. Infamous; scandalous.
flavonoid
Any of a large group of plant substances that includes the anthocyanins.
folderol
1. Foolish; nonsense.
2. A trifle; a geegaw.
frondescent
Bearing, resembling, or hacing a profusion of leaves or fronds; leafy.
gauchely
Lacking social polish; tactless.
gentian violet
A dye used in microscopy as a biological stain and in medicine as a bactericide, a fungicide, and an anthelmintic.
gerbil
1. Any of various small, mouselike rodents of the genus Gerbillus and related genera of arid regions of Africa and Asia Minor, having long hind legs and a long tail.
2. The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), having large dark eyes and a long furry tail and often kept as a pet.
Gewürztraminer
1. A dry white table wine with a spicy bouquet, produced in the Alsace region of France.
2. A similar wine produced elsewhere.
glaciologist
One who examines glaciers and their effects on the landscape.
glissando
In music, a rapid slide through a series of consecutive tones in a scalelike passage.
gnosis
Intuitive apprehension of spiritual truths, and esoteric form of knowledge sought by the Gnostics.
golem
In Jewish folklore, an artificially created human being supernatural endowed with life.
Greenwich time
The mean solar time for the meridian at Greenwich, England, used as a basis for calculating time throughout most of the world. Also called universal time (UT).
grommet
1a. A reinforced eyelet, as in cloth or leather, through which a fastener may be passed.
1b. A small metal or plastic ring used to reinforce such an eyelet.
2. A loop of rope or metal used for securing the edge of a sail to its stay.
Guyana
A country of northeast South America on the Atlantic Ocean. Settled originally by the Dutch in the 17th century, it was a British colony from 1814 until 1966, when it gained its independence. Georgetown is the capital and the largest city. Population: 918,000.
hectored
To intimidate or dominate in a blustering way.
hedgehog
1. Any of several small insectivorous mammals of the family Erinaceidae of Europe, Asia, and Africa, having the back covered with dense, erectile spines and characteristically rolling into a ball for protection.
2. Any of several spiny animals, such as the porcupine, that are similar to this mammal.
Heptateuch
The first seven books of the Old Testament.
heritability
1. Capable of being passed from one generation to the next; hereditary.
2. Capable of inheriting or taking by inheritance.
hexapod
1. A six-legged arthropod of the class Insecta; an insect.
2. Of or belonging to the class Insecta.
3. Having six legs or feet.
Hibernia
The Latin and poetic name for the island of Ireland.
histrionics
1. Theatrical arts or performances.
2. Exaggerated emotional behavior calculated for an effect.
honorific
1. Conferring or showing respect.
2. A title, phrase, or grammatical form conveying respect, used especially when addressing a social superior.
horologe
A device, such as a clock or sundial, used in telling time.
hygrometer
Any of several instruments that measure atmospheric humidity.
hypercritical
Excessively inclined to find fault or judge with severity.
iconoclast
1. One who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional or popular ideas or institutions.
2. One who destroys sacred religious images.
illusionist
1. In philosophy, an adherent of the doctrine of magic.
2. An artist whose work is marked by magic.
3. A magician or ventriloquist.
implication
1. The condition of being.
2. An indirect indication; a suggestion.
3. An inference.
impromptu
1. Prompted by the occassion rather than being planned in advance.
2. Spoken, performed, done, or composed with little or no preparation.
3. Something, such as a speech, that is made or done extemporaneously.
4. In music, a short lyrical composition, especially for the piano.
inauspicious
Not favorable.
Indonesia
Formerly the Dutch East Indies, a country of southeast Asia in the Malay Archipelago comprising Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, the Moluccas, parts of Borneo, New Guinea, and Timor, and many smaller islands. First visited by Dutch navigators in 1595-1596, Indonesia was dominated by the Dutch East Indies Company from 1602 to 1798, when authority was turned over to the government of the Netherlands. In 1945 the territory declared its independence, which was finally achieved in 1949. Jakarta, on Java, is the capital and the largest city. Population: 147,490,298.
ineffable
1. Incapable of being expressed; indescribable or unnumerable.
2. Not to be uttered; taboo.
initiary
1. Introductory; initial.
2. Tending or used to start.
inoculation
1. The act or an instance of, especially the introduction of an antigenic substance of vaccine into the body to produce immunity to a specific disease.
2. An informal, preemptive advertising tactic in which one party attempts to foresee and neutralize potentially damaging criticism from another party by being the first to confront troublesome issues.
inordinate
1. Exceeding reasonable limits; immoderate.
2. Not regulated; disorderly.
intriguing
1. To engage in secret or underhand schemes; plot.
2. To effect by secret scheming or plotting.
3. To arouse the interest or curiosity of.
invidious
1. Tending to rouse ill will, animosity, or resentment.
2. Containing or implying a slight; discriminatory.
3. Envious.
javelina
A small wild hog (Tayassu tajacu) with a range from the southwest United States to northern Argentina, having a gray and black coat with a white band from the back to the chest.
jillionaire
An indeterminably huge number.
judgmental
Inclined to make a decision, especially moral or personal ones.
Kaddish
In Judaism, a prayer that is recited in the daily synagogue services and by mourners after the death of a close relative.
karma
1. In Hinduism and Buddhism, the total effect of a person's actions and conduct during the successive phases of the person's existance, regarded as determining the person's destiny.
2. Fate; destiny.
3. A distinctive aura, atmosphere, or feeling.
kedgeree
A dish consisting of flaked fish, boiled rice, and egs.
kilderkin
1. A cask.
2. An obsolete English measure of capacity equal to about 18 gallons (68 liters).
kyphosis
Abnormal rearward curvature of the spine, resulting in protuberance of the upper back; hunchback.
laity
1. Laypeople considered as a group.
2. All those persons who are not members of a given profession or other specialized field.
landau
1. A four-wheeled carriage with front and back passenger seats that face each other and a roof in two sections that can be lowered or detached.
2. A style of automobile with a similar roof.
lapidarian
Of or relating to the working of stone or gems.
larcenous
Relating to the wrongful taking and carrying away of the personal goods of another from his or her possession with intent to convert them to the taker's own use.*
lenity
The condition or quality of being permissive.*
leonine rhyme
A form of internal rhyme in which the word preceding the caesura rhymes with the final word in the line.

Example: "For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams."
lexicon
1. A dictionary.
2. A stock of terms used in a particular profession, subject, or style; a vocabulary.
3. In linguistics, the morphemes of a language considered as a group.
Liberia
A country of western Africa on the Atlantic Ocean. It was founded in 1821 through the efforts of the American Colonization Society and settled mainly by freed slaves from 1822 to the 1860's. It is the oldest independent country in Africa, established in 1847. Monrovia is the capital and largest city. Population: 1,911,000.
librettist
In music, the author of a libretto.
ligation
1a. The act of binding.
1b. The state of being bound.
ligneous
Consistin of or having the texture or appearance of wood; woody.
loggerhead
1. A type of turtle.
2. An iron tool consisting of a long handle with a bulbous end, used when heated to melt tar or warm liquids.
3. A post on a whaleboat used to secure the harpoon rope.
4a. A blockhead; a dolt.
4b. A disproportionately large head.
logomachy
1. A dispute about words.
2. A dispute carried on in words only; a battle of words.
louche
Of questionable taste or morality.
luminaria
1. In the southwestern United States, a votive candle set into a small, decorative paper bag weighted with sand and placed in a row with others along a walkway, driveway, or rooftop as a holiday decoration. Also called farolito.
2. In New Mexico, a bonfire built in front of each house in a pueblo to celebrate Christmas Eve.
lumpenproletariat
1. The lowest, most degraded stratum of the proletariat. Used originally in Marxist theory to describe those members of the proletariat, especially criminals, vagrants, and the unemployed, who lacked class consciousness.
2. The underclass of a human population.
lysozyme
An enzyme occuring naturally in egg white, human tears, saliva, and other body fluids, capable of destroying the cell walls of certain bacteria and thereby acting as a mild antiseptic.
macrocosm
1. The entire world; the universe.
2. A system reflecting on a large scale one of its component systems or parts.
magisterium
In the Roman Catholic Church, the authority to teach religious doctrine.
malingerer
To feign illness or other incapacity in order to avoid duty or work.
mandala
Any of various ritualistic geometric designs symbolic of the universe, used in Hinduism and Buddhism as an aid to meditation.
marasmus
In pathology, a progressive wasting of the body, occurring chiefly in young children and associated with insufficient intake or malabsorption of food.
maraud
1. To rove and raid in search in booty.
2. To raid or pillage for plunder.
matriculant
One who matriculates or is a candidate for matriculation.
mazzard
A wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium) often used as a grafting stock.
mediocrity
1. The state of being only ordinary or moderate quality; neither good nor bad; barely adequate.*
2. Ability, achievement, or performance that is barely adequate.*
meliorism
The belief that society has an innate tendency toward improvement and that this tendency may be furthered through conscious human effort.
menhir
A prehistoric monument of a class found chiefly in the British Isles and northern France, consisting of a single tall, upright megalith.
meropia
Partial blindness.
mesothelium
The layer of flat cells of mesodermal origin that lines the embryonic body cavity and gives rise to the squamous cells of the peritoneum, pericardium, and pleura.
metaethics
The study of the meaning and nature of ethical terms, judgments, and arguments.
midwifery
The techniques and practice of a person trained to assist women in childbirth.
Miletus
An ancient Ionian city of western Asia Minor in present-day Turkey. Occupied by Greeks c. 1000 B.C., it became an important trading and colonizing settlement and also flourished as a center of learning. The city declined after its harbor silted up early in the Christian era.
mintage
1. The act or process of making coins.
2. Coins.
3. The fee paid to a body that produces coins by the government.
4. The impression stamped on a coin.
mismanagement
To take care of badly or carelessly.
misspoken
To speak or pronounce incorrectly.
mnemonic
1. Relating to, assisting, or intended to assist the memory.
2. A device, such as a formula or rhyme, used as an aid in remembering.
monasticism
The monk life or system, especially as practiced in a house or place of residence of monks.
monaural
1. Of, relating to, or designating sound reception by one ear.
2. In electronics, relating to a system of transmitting, recording, or reproducing sound in which one or more sources are connected to a single channel; monophonic.
monostich
1. A poem consisting of a single line.
2. A single line of poetry.
Monticello
An estate of central Virginia southeast of Charlottesville. Designed by Thomas Jefferson, it was begun in 1770 and was his home for 56 years. Owned by other families shortly after Jefferson's death until 1923, it is now a national shrine.
mouton
Sheepskin that has been sheared and processed to resemble beaver or seal.
multimedia
1. The combined use of several media, such as movies, slides, music, and lighting, especially for the purpose of education or entertainment.
2. The use of several mass media, such as television, radio, and print, especially for the purpose of advertising or publicity. Also called mixed media.
3. The combined use of media such as text, graphics, video, and sound, as on a computer system.
mydriasis
Prolonged, abnormal dilatation of the pupil of the eye caused by disease or a drug.
natatorial
Of, relating to, adapted for, or characterized by swimming.
necessitate
1. To make unavoidable or required.
2. To require or compel.
neuralgia
Sharp, severe paroxysmal pain extending along a nerve or group of nerves.
nigrescence
1. The process of becoming black or dark.
2. Blackness or darkness, as of complexion.
noblesse oblige
Benevolent, honorable behavior considered to be the responsibility of persons of high birth or rank.
nonexistant
1. The condition of not existing.
2. Something that does not exist.
nontenured
Not having or leading to tenure.
nunciature
The office or term of office of a diplomatic representative of the pope at a foreign court or capital, like an ambassador.
obliquity
1. The quality or condition of being slant or not straight.
2a. A deviation from a vertical or horizontal line, plane, position, or direction.
2b. The angle or extent of such a deviation.
3a. A mental deviation or aberration.
3b. Immoral conduct.
4a. Obscurity in conduct or verbal expression.
4b. An obscure statement.
octodecimo
1. The page size, 4 by 6½ inches, of a book composed of printer's sheets folded into 18 leaves or 36 pages.
2. A book of this size.*
odeum
1. A small building of ancient Greece and Rome used for public performances of music and poetry.
2. A contemporary theater or concert hall.
ogreish
1. Characteristic of a giant or monster in legends and fairy tales that eats human beings.
2. A person who is felt to be particularly cruel, brutish, or hideous.
Oligocene
In geology, of, relating to, or being the geologic time and deposits of the epoch in the Tertiary Period of the Cenozoic Era that extended from the Eocene Epoch to the Miocene Epoch.
ontic
In philosophy, relating to or prossessing real existance.
oology
The branch of zoology that deals with the study of eggs, especially birds' eggs.
organoleptic
1. Relating to perception by a sensory organ.
2. Involving the use of sense organs.
ornithopter
A machine shaped like an aircraft that is held aloft and propelled by wing movements.
otitis media
Inflammation of the middle ear, occuring commonly in children as a result of infection and often causing pain and temporary hearing loss.
ozonize
1. To treat or impregnate with a form of oxygen.
2. To convert oxygen.
palinode
1. A poem in which the author retracts something said in a previous poem.
2. A formal statement of retraction.
panacean
A remedy for all diseases, evils, or difficulties; a cure-all.
panoply
1. A splendid or striking array.
2. Ceremonial attire with all accessories.
3. Something that covers and protects.
4. The complete arms and armor of a warrior.
parataxis
The juxtaposition of clauses or phrases without the use of coordinating or subordinating conjunctions.

Example: "It was cold; the snows came."
parvis
1. An enclosed courtyard or space at the entrance to a building, especially a cathedral, that is sometimes surrounded by porticoes or colonnades.
2. One of the porticoes or colonnades surrounding such a space.
pasqueflower
Any of several plants of the genus Anemone, especially A. patens, having large blue, purple, or white flowers, each producing many conspicuously-plumed achenes.
patinaed
Having a coating, covering, or sheen; patinated. Used especially to describe the corrosive green layer that forms on copper and its alloys.
patrilineage
The line of descent as traced through the father's side of a family.
perennate
To survive from one growing season to the next, often with a period of reduced or arrested growth between seasons. Used of plants or plant parts.
pestilential
Poisonous.
phantasmagoria
1a. A fantastic sequence of haphazardly associative imagery, as seen in dreams or fever.
1b. A constantly changing scene composed of numerous elements.
2. Fantastic imagery as represented in art.
philosophize
1. To speculate.
2. To set forth or express a moralistic, often superficial system of principles.
physiognomy
1a. The art of judging human character from facial features.
1b. Divination based on facial features.
2a. Facial features, especially when regarded as revealing character.
2b. Aspect and character of an inanimate or abstract entity.
placebo effect
A beneficial effect in a patient following a particular treatment that arises from the patient's expectations concerning the treatment rather than from the treatment itself.
plebeian
1. Of or relating to the common people of ancient Rome.
2. Of, belonging to, or characteristic of commoners.
3. Unrefined or coarse in nature or manner; common or vulgar.
plunger
1. One who dives.
2. A device consisting of a rubber suction cup attached to the end of a stick, used to clean out clogged drains and pipes. Also called plumber's helper.
3. A machine part, such as a piston, that operates with a thrusting movement.
poet laureate
1. A poet appointed for life by a British monarch as a member of the royal household and formerly expected to write poems celebrating occassions of national importance and honoring the royal family.
2. A poet appointed to a similar honorary position or honored for artistic excellence.
3. A poet acclaimed as the most excellent or most representative of a locality or group.
polyglot
1. Speaking, writing, written in, or composed of several languages.
2. A person having a speaking, reading, or writing knowledge of several languages.
3. A book, especially the Bible, containing several versions of the same text in different languages.
4. A mixture or confusion of languages.
pomology
The scientific study and cultivation of fruit.
Ponzi scheme
An investment swindle in which high profits are promised from fictitious sources and early investors are paid off with funds raised from later ones.

After Charles Ponzi (1882-1949), Italian-born speculator who organized such a scheme (1919-1920).
posit
1. To affirm or assume the existance of; postulate.
2. To put forward, as for consideration or study; suggest.
prandial
Of or relating to a meal.
precatory
Relating to or expressing entreaty or supplication.
preordination
To appoint, decree, or ordain in advance; foreordain.
presidential
Of or relating to a political system in which the chief officer is elected independently of the legislature for a fixed term.
presynaptic
Situated in front of or occurring before a synapse.
primrose path
1. A way of life of worldly ease or pleasure.
2. A course of action that seems easy and appropriate but can actually end in calamity.
proboscidian
A mammal of the order Proboscidea, such as the elephant or its extinct relatives, having a long trunk, large tusks, and a massive body.
prophesier
1. To reveal by divine inspiration.
2. To predict with certainty as if by divine inspiration.
3. To prefigure; foreshadow.
prosecutorial
Of, relating to, or concerned with the institution of carrying on legal procreedings against a person.
protolithic
Of, relating to, or characteristic of the very beginning of the Stone Age; Eolithic.
provost
1. A university administrator of high rank.
2. The highest official in certain cathedrals or collegiate churches.
3. The keeper of a prison.
4. The chief magistrate of certain Scottish cities.
puissant
Power; might.
quadratics
In mathematics, the branch of algebra that deals with quadratic equations.
quadrumanous
In zoology, having four feet with opposable first digits, as primates other than human beings.
quayage
1. A charge for the use of a landing place near water.
2. A system or group of these places.
3. The space available on these places.
quipu
A record-keeping device of the Inca empire consisting of a series of variously colored strings attached to a base rope and knotted so as to encode information, used especially for accounting purposes.
quixotical
1. Caught up in the romance of noble deeds and the pursuit of unreachable goals; idealistic without regard to practicality.
2. Capricious; impulsive.
racquetball
A game played on a four-walled handball court by two or four players with short-handled rackets and a hollow rubber ball 2¼ inches (5.7 centimeters) in diameter.
rampageous
Raging; frenzied.
rappelled
The act or method of descending from a mountainside or cliff by means of a belayed rope that is passed under one thigh and over the opposite shoulder so that it can be payed out smoothly and gradually.
ravening
1. To consume greedily; devour.
2. To seek or seize as prey or plunder.
recalculate
To compute again, especially in order to eliminate errors or to incorporate additional factors or data.
redacted
1. To draw up or frame (a proclamation, for example).
2. To make ready for publication; edit or revise.
regnant
1. Reigning; ruling.
2. Predominant.
3. Widespread; prevalent.
remilitarize
To equip again for war.
reparations
1. The act or process of repairing or the condition of being repaired.
2. The act or process of making amends; expiation.
3. Something done or paid to compensate or make amends.
4. Compensation or remuneration required from a defeated nation as indemnity for damage or injury during a war.
repugnance
1. Extreme dislike or repulsion.
2. The relationship of contradictory terms; inconsistency.
requite
1. To make repayment or return for.
2. To avenge.
restitution
1. The act of restoring to the rightful owner something that has been taken away, lost, or surrendered.
2. The act of making good or compensating for loss, damage, or injury; indemnification.
3. A return to or restoration of a previous state or position.
retrogression
1. The act or process of deteriorating or declining.
2. In biology, a return to a less complex or more primitive state or stage.
reveille
1a. The sounding of a bugle early in the morning to awaken and summon people in a camp or garrison.
1b. This bugle call or its equivalent.
1c. The first military formation of the day.
2. A signal to get up out of bed.
revocation
The act or an instance of taking back or withdrawing.
rhodopsin
The pigment sensitive to red light in the retinal rods of the eyes, consisting of opsin and retinene. Also called visual purple.
rime riche
Rhyme using words or parts of words that are pronounced identically but have different meanings. Also called identical rhyme.

Example: write-right; port-deport.
ritornello
1. In music, an instrumental interlude recurring after each stanza in a vocal work.
2. A passage for full orchestra in a baroque concerto grosso.
3. An instrumental interlude in early 17th-century opera.
4. The refrain of a rondo.
Riyadh
The capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia, in the east-central part of the country east-northeast of Mecca. Situated in a desert oasis, it was formerly a walled city until the oil boom of the 1950's led to the demolition of older structures to make way for commercial expansion. Population: 1,250,000.
Roche limit
The smallest distance at which a natural satellite can orbit a celestial body without being torn apart by the larger body's gravitational force. The distance depends on the densities of the two bodies and the orbit of the satellite.

After Edouard Albert Roche (1820-1883), a French mathematician.
Rosicrucian
1. A member of an international organization, especially the Ancient Mystic Order Rosae Crusis, devoted to the study of ancient mystical, philosophical, and religious doctrines and concerned with the application of these doctrines to modern life.
2. A member of any several secret organizations of orders of the 17th and 18th centuries concerned with the study of religious mysticism and professing esoteric religious beliefs.
royalism
Support of or adherence to the principle of rule by a monarch.
rufescent
Tinged with red.
rusticate
1. To go to or live in the country.
2. To send to the country.
3. To suspend (a student) from a univesity.
4. To construct (masonry) with conspicuous, often beveled points.
sacerdotalism
The belief that priests act as mediators between God and human beings.
sacrosanct
Regarded as sacred and inviolable.
salience
1. The quality or condition of being prominent.
2. A pronounced feature or part; a highlight.
samizdat
1a. The secret publication and distribution of government-banned literature in the Soviet Union.
1b. The literature produced by this system.
2. An underground press.
sanctimony
Feigned piety or righteousness; hypocritical devoutness or high-mindedness.
savagery
1. The quality or condition of being uncivilized.
2. An act of violent cruelty.
3. Barbarity.
scampi
Large shrip broiled or sautéed and served in a garlic and butter sauce.
schematically
1. Of, relating to, or in the form of a plan or diagram.
2. A structural or procedural diagram, especially of an electrical or mechanical system.
sclerotic
Of or relating to the tough, white, fibrous outer envelope of tissue covering all of the eyeball except the cornea.
scrimshaw
1. The art of carving or incising intricate designs on whalebone or whale ivory.
2. A decorative article made of this art.
3. To decorate (whale ivory or whale bone) with intricate carvings or designs or to make such designs.
second-generation
1. Of or relating to a person or persons whose parents are immigrants.
2. Of or relating to a person or persons whose parents are citizens by birth and whose grandparents are immigrants.
3. In computer science, of, relating to, or being the period of computer technology distinguished by the use of solid-state circuitry.
semantane
An irreducible unit of meaning.
semiopaque
Partially impenetrable to light.
seraph
1. A celestial being having three pairs of wings.
2. In theology, one of the first order of angels.
sericeous
1. Silky.
2. In botany, covered with soft, silky hairs.
shofar
In Judaism, a trumpet made of a ram's horn, blown by the ancient Hebrews during religious ceremonies and as a signal in battle, now sounded in the synagogue during Rosh Hashanah and at the end of Yom Kippur.
sika
A medium-sized deer (Cervus nippon) native to Japan and China but naturalized in Europe and other countries, having a small head, compact body, and mostly spotted reddish or chestnut coat. Several of its subspecies are endangered in the wild.
simplism
The tendency to oversimplify an issue or a problem by ignoring complexities or complications.
skewbald
Having spots or patches of white on a coat of a color other than black, especially on a horse.
smarmy
1. Hypocritically, complacently, or effusively earnest; unctuous.
2. Sleek.
songstress
1. A woman who performs songs, especially ballads or popular songs.
2. A woman who writes songs.
spangle
1. A small, often circular piece of sparkling metal or plastic sewn especially on garments for decoration.
2. A small sparkling object, drop, or spot.
spherometer
An instrument for measuring the curvature of a surface, as of a sphere or cylinder.
spondylosis
Degeneration of the spinal column, especially a fusion and immobilization of the vertebral bones.
statutory
1. Of or relating to law.
2. Enacted, regulated, or authorized by law.
stichomythia
An ancient Greek arrangement of dialogue in drama, poetry, and disputation in which single lines of verse or parts of lines are spoken by alternate speakers.
stomatology
The medical study of the mouth and its diseases.
storm petrel
Any of various small sea birds of the family Hydrobatidae, especially Hydrobates pelagicus, of the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean, having sooty plumage and a white rump.
subjective idealism
In philosophy, the theory that nature has no objective existance independent of the minds that perceive it.
subpoena
1. A writ requiring appearance in court to give testimony.
2. To serve or summon with such a writ.
suzerain
1. A nation that controls another nation in international affairs but allows it domestic sovereignty.
2. A feudal lord to whom fealty was due.
Swaziland
A country of southeast Africa between South Africa and Mozambique. A British protectorate after 1903, it became independent in 1968. Mbabane is the capital and largest city. Population: 585,000
tacit
1. Not spoken.
2a. Implied by or inferred from actions or statements.
2b. In law, arising by operation of the law rather than through direct expression.
3. Not speaking; silent.
talipes
A congenital deformity of the foot, usually marked by a curled shape or twisted position of the ankle, heel, and toes. Also called clubfoot.
taphonomy
1. The study of the conditions and processes by which organisms become fossilized.
2. The conditions and processes of fossilization.
tapioca
A beady starch obtained from the root of the cassava, used for puddings and as a thickening agent in cooking.
tenable
1. Capable of being maintained in argument; rationally defensible.
2. Capable of being held against assault; defensible.
tendentiously
Marked by a strong implicit point of view; partisan.
theogony
An account of the origin and genealogy of the gods.
theological
Of or relating to specialized religious study.
Tophet
1. In Judaism, the underworld where wicked souls suffer torment after death.
2. An extremely unpleasant or painful condition or place.
torsade
A decorative trimming of twisted ribbon or cord, used especially on hats.
transferable, transferrable
1. To convey or cause to pass from one place, person, or thing to another.
2. In law, to make over the possession or legal title of; convey.
3. To convey (a design, for example) from one surface to another, as by impression.
transfigure
1. To alter the outward appearance of; transform.
2. To exalt or glorify.
trattoria
An informal restaurant or tavern serving simple Italian dishes.
triphthong
A compound vowel sound resulting from the succession of three simple ones and functioning as a unit, as (wou) in wow.
trousseau
The possessions, such as clothing and linens, that a bride assembles for her marriage.
tumultuary
Marked by haste, confusion, disorder, and irregularity.
ultraliberal
Liberal to an extreme, especially in political beliefs; radical.
unappropriated
1. Not designed for a specific use.
2. Not possessed by, spoken for, or formally assigned to a particular person or organization.
uncharacteristic
Unusual or atypical.
underling
One of lesser rank or authority than another; a subordinate.
unfathomable
Difficult or impossible to understand or measure.
uniparous
1. Producing only one egg or offspring at a time.
2. Having produced only one offspring.
3. In botany, forming a single axis at each branching, as certain flower clusters.
unmortise
To separate.
vagility
The capacity or tendency of an organism or a species to move about or disperse in a given environment.
valonia
The dried acorn cups of an oak tree (Quercus aegilops) of the eastern Mediterranean, used chiefly in tanning and dyeing.
valvular
Relating to, having, or operating by means of a device that controls a flow.
Vanderbilt
Cornelius. (1794-1877). Also known as "Commodore."

An American transportation promoter and financier who amassed a great fortune through railroad and shipping interests.

His heirs included his son William Henry (1821-1885), a financier and philanthropist, and William Henry's sons Cornelius (1843-1899), a railroad director; William Kissam (1849-1920), a railroad executive and philanthropist; Frederick William (1856-1938), a railroad manager; and George Washington (1862-1914), who commissioned Biltmore, located in Asheville, North Caroline, the largest private home in America.
vasculum
A small box or case used for carrying collected plant specimens.
ventilator
1. A device that circulates fresh air and expels foul or stale air.
2. A respirator.
vers libre
Free verse.
videophile
One with an avid interest in watching television or videos or in making video recordings.
view halloo
A strident call given during a fox hunt to indicate that the fox has been seen breaking cover.
viscosity
1. The condition of property of being sticky or gluey.
2. In physics, the type of coefficient.
vitreous
1. Of, relating to, resembling, or having the nature of glass; glassy.
2. Obtained or made from glass.
3. Of or relating to the type of humor.
volatility
1a. In chemistry, evaporating readily at normal temperatures and pressures.
1b. That can be readily vaporized.
2a. Tending to vary often or widely, as in price.
2b. Inconstant; fickle.
2c. Lighthearted; flighty.
2d. Ephemeral; fleeting.
3. Tending to violence; explosive.
Vouvray
A dry white table wine from central France.
wait-a-bit
Any of several plants having sharp, often hooked thorns. Also called wait-a-minute.
wampum
1. Small cylindrical beads made from polished shells and fashioned into strings or belts, formerly used by certain Native American peoples as currency and jewelry or for ceremonial exchanges between groups. Also called peag.
2. Money.
wastrel
1. One who wastes, especially one who wastes money; a profligate.
2. An idler or a loafer.
waxen
1. Made of or covered with wax.
2. Pale or smooth as wax.
3. Weak, pliable, or impressionable.
whetstone
A hard, fine-grained stone for honing tools. Also called snakestone.
whey-face
A person with a pallid face.
Winesap
A variety of apple having fruit with dark red skin.
xanthoma
A yellowish-orange, lipid-filled nodule or papule in the skin, often on an eyelid or over a joint.
xyster
A surgical instrument for scraping bones.
Yemen
A country of southwest Asia at the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. It was formed when Yemen (or North Yemen) merged with Southern Yemen in May 1990. Sana is the capital and Aden the largest city. Population: 8,959,000.
ylem
A form of matter hypothesized by proponents of the big bang theory to have existed before the formation of the chemical elements.
yurt
A circular, domed, portable tent used by the nomadic Mongols of central Asia.
zoonosis
A disease of animals, such as rabies or psittacosis, that can be transmitted to human beings.
zygodactyl
Having two toes projecting forward and two projecting backward, as certain climbing birds.