Ch 28 biology Arthropods and Echinoderms Def.

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arthropods
animals that have a segmented body, a tough exoskeleton, and jointed appendages
Arthropoda
largest phylum of animals
arthropod
means "joint foot"
exoskeleton
tough external covering
chitin
what the exoskeleton is made of in arthropods
appendages
structures that extend from the body wall of an arthropod that includes legs and an antennae.
jointed
Arthropods feature _________ appendages.
600
First arthropods were aquatic and appeared over ________ million years ago. (type in the number)
2 3
Living arthropods have ___ to ___ body segments. (type in the numbers and leave a space inbetween)
tracheal tubes
network of branching tubes that extend throughout the body; this is what terrestrial arthropods breathe through
spiracles
small openings located along the side of the body; air and water leaves the tracheal tubes through this
book lungs
organs that have layers of stacked respiratory tissue that spiders use
gills
What do most aquatic arthropods use to breathe?
open
arthropods have this type of circulatory system
heart
arthropods have a well developed _________
malphigian tubes
are saclike organs that extract waste from the blood and add them to the feces in arthropods
internal
__________ type of fertilization in terrestrial arthropods
external
__________ type of fertilization in aquatic arthropods
molting
process by which arthropods shed outgrown exoskeletons and manufacture larger ones to take place
endocrine system
molting is controlled by this system
Crustacea
What is the subphylum of arthropods that are primarily aquatic and typically have two pairs of antennae, 2-3 body segments, and mandibles?
mandibles
this is the third pair of appendages in a crustacean anatomy that is a biting and grinding mouthparts
cephalothorax
fusion of head and thorax, houses most of internal organs
carapace
this covers the cephalothorax
abdomen
posterior part of a crustacean anatomy
antennae
this is the first two pairs of appendages in a crustacean anatomy, and it bears sensory hairs
gills
this is attached to the cephalothorax
chelipeds
what is the first pair of legs in a crawfish called that bears large claws that are modified to catch, pick up, crush, and cut food?
swimmerets
this is located on the abdomen of crawfish and are flipperlike appendages used for swimming
5
How many pairs of legs does the animals of the Crustacean subgroup have? (type in the number)
4
how many pairs of walking legs does a crawfish have? (type in the number)
sessile
What kind of crustaceans lost their abdominal segments, don't use mandibles, and use appendages to draw food to its mouth?
Chelicerata
What is the subphylum of Arthropods that contain spiders and their relatives such as horseshoe crabs, spiders, ticks, and scorpions?
chelicerae
these are specialized mouthparts that are the first pair of appendages attached near the mouthparts in chelicerates
chelicerates
they have two body segments - cephalothorax and abdomen-, four pairs of walking legs, lack an antennae, and respire using book lungs, where spiracles are used for air to enter into.
pedipalps
these are the other pairs of appendages that are longer than chelicerae and are modified to catch prey in chelicerates
Merostomata
this is the class of the subphylum Chelicerata that includes horseshoe crabs and are amongst the oldest living arthropods that appeared over 500 years ago.
horseshoe crabs
they have a chitonous exoskeleton, and their anatomy is similar to spiders - they have chelicerae, five pairs of walking legs, and a long spikelike tail.
Arachnida
this is a class in the subphylum Chelicerata that includes spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions.
spiders
_________ are the largest groups of arachnids that have no jaws to chew food but liquefies food instead.
specialized pumping stomach
Spiders suck liquefied body tissure through this
digestive enzyme
Spiders inject _______ ________ into prey.
silk
all spiders produce this even if they do not spin webs, and it is stronger than steel.
spinnerets
these are silk glands through which spiders force liquid silk
Uniramia
Another subphylum of arthropods that includes centipedes, millipedes, and insects.
uniramians
arthropods with characteristics including jaws, one pair of antennae, and unbranched appendages.
centipedes
this bug has leg pairs ranging from a few to more than 100. Their body segments bear one pair of legs each and they use claws to stun or catch their prey.
Chilopoda
this is the class in the subphylum Uniramia that includes centipedes.
centipedes
this bug lives underground, and their spiracles cannot close because their exoskeleton is not waterproof and they lose water easily.
Diplopoda
This is the class in the subphylum Uniramia that includes millepedes.
millipedes
they have 2 sets of legs per segment; they aren't very aggresive; they live in dark habitats, often under rocks.
Insecta
This is a class that is under the subphylum Uniramia that contains more species than any group of animals. It have a three-part body with a segmented body, jointed appendages, and an exoskeleton.
ants termites
_____ and _____ account for one third of the animal biomass in the Amazon Basin. (just type both words and leave a space inbetween)
compound
insects have what kind of eyes?
salt sugar
insects are extremely sensitive to ____ and _____. (again type the words and leave a space between)
moth
this insect have a tubelike mouthpart to suck nectar.
fly
this insect has a spongelike mouthpart to lap food.
saliva
insects have ______ that can contain a digestive enzyme to break down food.
3
insects have __ pairs of legs. (type the number)
2
insects have __ pairs of chitin wings. (type the number)
metamorphasis
a phase in the growth and development of insects that involves changing shape and form
incomplete metamorphasis
this is an immature form very similar to an adult form
pupa
it is a stage during which a larvae becomes an adult.
nymphs
these are immaturer forms of insects that undergo incomplete metamorphasis
larvae
these immature insects cannot fly because they have no reproductive capability; they undergo initial growth phase involving molting; their appearance and habits do not change in initial phase; and the final molt results in formation of a pupa.
sound visual chemical
insects use ______, _______, ______, and other types of communication. (type words leave space in between)
pheromones
specific chemical messages that affect the behavior or development of other members of hte same species.
society
groups of closely related animals of the same species that work together for the benefit of the whole group
castes
groups of individuals that perform a specialized role in a society
waggle dance
this is what bees do when they have located food at a distance.
Echinodermata
this is a phylum that contains starfish, sea stars, sand dollars, and sea urchins
echinoderm
this means "spiny skin"
endoskeleton
the name echinoderm refers to the presense of _________ formed form hardened plates of calcium carbonate; it gives echinoderms a bumpy and irregular texture.
anterior posterior
In echinoderms, the adults have no _______ or _______ end. (type in word and leave space in between)
cephalization
the adults of echinoderms lacks this process.
radial
echinoderms have ______ symmetry
echinoderms
they are characterized by spiny skin, an internal skeleton, a water vascular structure, and tube feet.
tube feet
they are suction-cup like structures on the ventral sides of echinoderms; they attach to each radial canal.
water vascular system
fluid-filled system of vessels that carries out essential functions such as respirationi, circulation, and movements IN ONLY ECHINODERMS!!!
madreporite
the water vascular system is open to the outside through the _______, which connects to a ring canal that encircles the animal's mouth.
sea urchins
they use jaw-like structures to scrape algae from rocks.
sea lillies
they use tube feet to capture floating plankton.
sea stars
they feed on mollusks by pushing their stomach through the mouth to release enzymes that digest mollusks in their shells; then pulls digested prey back into its mouth
anus
this is where the digestive waste are realeased as feces
nervous
echinoderms do have have a _______ system due to lack of cephalization
nerve
echinoderms have a ________ ring surrounding their mouth.
separate
echinoderms reproduce using ______ sexes
external
echinoderms reproduce using _________ fertilization.
sea urchins sand dollars
_____ _____ and _____ ______ have large, solid plates that form a box around their internal organs; they are detritiroves or grazers that feed on algae; they have defense through burrowing, wedging into small crevices with the use of long sharp spines. (just type the words and leave a space inbetween)
brittle stars
_________ _______ are common in coral reefs; they have slender, flexible arms that allow rapid movement; they use speed and ability to shed arms for protection; and they are filter feeders and detritivores.
sea cucumbers
______ __________ are tube-shaped echinoderms that move along the ocean floor; they are detritivores that suck up organic matter; they move in herds of hundreds of thousands in deep oceans.
sea stars (starfish)
_____ ______ move by creeping along ocean floor; they are carnivorous; they eat bivalves; they have excellent regenerative abilities; they are ecologically important- shift in population effects other organisms.