language expressing a quality apart from a specific object or event; opposite of concrete language
The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning.
The repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words (as in "she sells sea shells").
A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art.
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
appeal to tradition
a proposal that something should continue because it has traditionally existed or been done that way
A terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral principle. (If the authorship is unknown, the statement is generally considered to be a folk proverb.)
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. It is an address to someone or something that cannot answer. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity.
a process of reasoning and advancing proof about issues on which conflicting views may be held; also, a statement or statements providing support for a claim
The emotional nod created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author's choice of objects that are described.
those who will hear an argument; more generally, those to whom a communication is addressed
begging the question
making a statement that assumes that the issue being argued has already been decided
a verbal description, the purpose of which is to exaggerate or distort, for comic effect, a person's distinctive physical features or other characteristics.
A crossing parallelism where the second part of a grammatical construction is balanced or paralleled by the first part, only in reverse order.
claim of fact
a claim that asserts something exists, has existed, or will exist, based on data that the audience will accept as objectively verifiable
claim of policy
a claim asserting that specific courses of action should be instituted as solutions to problems
a worn-out expression or idea, no longer capable of producing a visual image provoking thought about a subject