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ESL Praxis set 1
Study for the ESL Praxis
Terms in this set (66)
Base in root words that can stand alone
Governs the form or structure of a language (sentences). Specifies what word combinations are acceptable and what ones are not
The way language is used to communicate. The how, why, when, and where language is used. the intent of language, what the speaker means to convey
the study of language
The study of sounds across languages
a pair of words that differ by only 1 phoneme- Dog/Bog
the group of sounds that make up a phoneme
affixes that can be added to a morpheme without changing its part of speech-suffixes
affixes that can be added to a morpheme to change its meaning and may change its part of speech
p t k
b d g
two letter spelling for 1 phoneme, (graph= ph/ swing=ng/chance=ch/head=ea)
two consonants pronounced as a single sound- ch, sh, th, wh, etc
two or more consonants spoken together without an intervening vowel (e.g. spoon, tree, blue, string)
refers to rounding of the lips to form the sound /u/ food; /v/ out; /o/ boat;
vowels that are articulated with the jaw relatively high--that is with the mouth nearly closed
vowels that are articulated with the jaw approximately in the middle of its range of vertical motion--that is, with the mouth about half open
vowels that are articulated with the jaw relatively low-- that is, with the mouth fully or almost fully open
formed by completely blocking the air and releasing it bilabials- stopped at lips
produced by a constant flow of air through the vocal tract. /f/ and /v/
produced by briefly stopping air and then releasing it with some friction. church
Stops, fricatives and affricates
come in voiced and voiceless pairs
sound come through the nose /m/
make a smooth sound /l/ and /r/
two letters that are pronounced together with each letter retaining its pronunciation
a strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or closure of some consonant sound formed by obstructing airflow. Example: t in tore
mispronouncing phonemes-usually with one articulated in a similar positioning the mouth
applying a rule of syntax to all situations "goed", "comed" vs. "went" and "came"
the point past which language learners can not progress without exceptional effort
the study of word meanings, idioms, and non-literal expressions
usually used at the end of questions
two words that sound exactly alike, but have different spellings and meanings
all the phones that make up one phoneme
using singular/plural form of nouns correctly
technical vocabulary associated with a special activity
larger units of language used in particular context (casual, professional, etc.)
the words and meanings in a language
the type of language used in a particular context (casual, professional, etc)
a phrase that makes no sense taken literally. (It was raining cats and dogs)
alternating between two or more languages, dialects, or registers in a single conversation
applying rules of syntax from first language to the second language.
Krashen's theory of Second Language Acquisition: Hypothesis that says learning is a conscious process; acquisition is a subconscious process. "Learned" language is quickly forgotten.
Natural Order Hypothesis
Krashen's theory of Second Language Acquisition: features of speech appear in a predictable order; sounds come first with some coming before others; statements before questions and positives before negative; order is determined by the language acquired, not the first language
Krashen's theory of Second Language Acquisition: Hypothesis that says rules are used to double-check what we say or write; requires time; focus on how something is said rather than the message itself; (self-correction)
Krashen's theory of Second Language Acquisition: Hypothesis that says input should be slightly beyond students' current level (i + 1) for acquisition to occur; pictures, gestures, tone of voice help make input comprehensible; frequently use key vocabulary words.
Affective Filter Hypotheses
Krashen's theory of Second Language Acquisition: Hypothesis that says nervousness, boredom, and anxiety have a negative affect on comprehension
5-7 years to learn academic English and BICS and CALP
developed "zone of proximal development" theory. Must work at appropriate developmental level not to hard or too easy-in order to learn.
goal is to use background and cues from three language systems (graphonics, syntax, and semantics) to construct meaning. Word parts are studied as a linguistic investigation
tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups
the process of learning one's culture, the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture. The way a child learns his culture
a shared, learned, symbolic system of values, beliefs, and attitudes that shapes and influences perception and behavior
Melting Pot Theory
when people from other cultures assimilate to the point where their original identities and culture disappear-they become a uniform culture.
cultures mix together in a culture of respect for diversity. Groups retain their cultural identities
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills. Recess language, informal register, personal use. Social communication (takes 3-5 years)
Study of linguistic performance and language acquisition. (surface structure (exact word) and Deep structure (real meaning).
talking around a subject. Using too many words.
Cognitive Academic language Proficiency Takes 5-7 years to develop. This is Academic English. Content related. Formal register
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
A. Chamot and J.M. O'Malley developed this approach.
A process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group. Merging of 2 groups
the study of sounds of a particular language and the rules governing the structure, distribution, and sequencing of speech sounds and the shape of the syllables
the smallest linguistic unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning.
the study of words and their internal organization
the study of sound and spelling- English has a "deep one" with many rules and options for letter/sound correspondence
the smallest grammatical unit that is indivisible without violating meaning or producing meaningles sounds--dog
must be attached to a root word to have meaning. suggixes and prefixes.
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