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The Challenges of Political, Social, and Economic Reform

Decembrist Revolt

-Moscow regiment refused to swear allegiance to Nicholas in favor of Constantine, peacefully failed
-Nicholas ordered them to be attacked, resulted in investigation of Secret Societies
-Decembrists wanted a constitutional government and the abolition of serfdom, became martyrs for Russian liberals

"Orthodoxy! Autocracy! Nationalism!"

-slogan for program of "Official Nationality"
-Russian Orthodox Church, tsar was only authority, and pride in country
-critics said Russia was only powerful under Peter, Catherine, and Alexander

Tsar Nicholas I

-Alexander's heir, inherited repressed country wanting reform
-first crisis= who was to be ruler, Constantine?
-second crisis= army officers planned revolt
-wouldn't make reforms because he was scared of change
-codified Russian law in 1833

German Confederation

-created by Congress of Vienna to replace Holy Roman Empire
-39 autonomous states "ruled" by Austria, kept away from constitutions


-student associations of German nationalists
-encouraged loyalty to German state, anti-semitic

Carlsbad Decrees of 1819

-dissolved Burschenschaften after a student assassinated a conservative leader
-prompted by Metternich
-liberties limited at university


-free trading union between Germanic states other than Austria

"white terror"

-royalists in South and West France attacked revolutionaries and Napoleon's supporters
-new French government resulted in harm to liberals

Charter of 1814

-constitution for Louis XVIII
-hereditary monarchy, bicameral legislature
-most of the rights from the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, wouldn't challenge land rights of property from church confiscation

Charles X

-Comte de Artois, ultraroyalist
-supported aristocracy and return of emigres, resented by middle class, loyal to Catholic church
-liberals gained seats in Chamber of Deputies and pressured Charles to accept a constitution
-Charles replaced moderate ministry with an ultraroyalist one


-reaction to the Enlightenment
-emotions trump reason
-more abstract art, more movement, less organization
-nationalism, liberalism

Lord Byron

-romanticist killed in Greek Revolution
-thought of it as a classical revival

Caspar David Friedrich


Peterloo Massacre

-radicals organized protest against repression and rallied in St. Peter's Fields in Manchester
-militia on hand entered crowd causing panic and violence

Six Acts

1. forbade public meetings
2. raised fines for libel
3. hurried trials of political agitators
4. increased newspaper taxes
5. prohibited training of armed troops
6. allowed local officials to search homes

Cato Street Conspiracy

-plot to blow up British Parliament
-discovered shortly after Six Acts

rotten borough

-abolished in Great Reform Bill
-voting district with few voters, give representatives to manufacturing districts
-increase voters in England and Wales

Sir Robert Peel

-sponsored legislation to create a police force in England
-repealed Corn Laws because of Irish famine
-tried to make British agriculture more efficient

Anti-Corn Law League

-organized by manufacturers to remove corn laws that were keeping prices of corn high and forcing higher wages
-would lower prices of British manufactured goods, increasing their sales
-began era of free trade

Louis Philippe

-July Monarchy
-constitutional monarchy, corrupt
-held banquets to address issues then discontinued them and angry Parisians forced him to abdicate

July Monarchy

-Louis Philippe's rule, "King of the French"
-constitutional government, Catholicism wasn't "official religion," abolished censorship
-power stayed in the higher classes, ignored demands of lower classes

Francoise Guizot

-Louis Philippe's minister during July Monarchy
-encouraged people to self-motivate and that would raise them out of property, worked for middle but not lower class

19th century nationalists

-borders should be defined by shared characteristics between people
-turned certain ethnic groups against each other in struggle for dominance

19th century liberals

-limit arbitrary power of government, religious toleration, legal equality, freedom of press
-supported governments with consitutions (conservatives were reminded of French Revolution)
-economic principles of Adam Smith

19th century conservatives

-maintain monarchies, aristocracy, and established churches
-against constitutional governments
-support from aristocracy and clergy, scared of upheavals

Corn Law

-passed by British Parliament to maintain high price of corn

Bourbon Restoration in France

-Louis XVI's brother, became Louis XVIII and a constitutional monarch

Greek Revolution of 1821

-support by famous liberals
-against weakening Ottoman Empire
-Treaty of London (Britain, France, and Russia) supported Greek independence

Samuel F. B. Morse


Corn Laws

-keep prices for grain grown domestically up
-good for farmers, bad for people buying food because they can't afford food so they stay hungry


-exemplified changes to society during industrial revolution
-terrible conditions, smoggy, dirty

David Ricardo "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation"

-came up with "Iron Law of Wages" that wages would always tend toward a minimum level
-supported employers desire for low wages

labor theory of value

-value of product is based on the amount of labor that went into it

"Iron Law of Wages"

-employers didn't need to raise wages because that would increase the population and then lead to a decrease in wages
-wages would determine themselves
-similar to "invisible hand of the market"

Comte de Saint-Simon

-socialist pioneer, liberal French aristocrat during French Revolution
-ideal government would have a board of directors that would manage all wealth (public and private)

utopian socialism

-envisioned creation of ideal communities and questioned existing capitalist structure
-lost support with ideas of free love

Francois Marie Charles Fourier

-father of Fourierism, never got a following
-wanted to construct phalanxes which would eliminate boredom and dullness of industrial society, agrarian, late marriage, shifting duties

Robert Owen

-father of Owenism, enlightened cotton manufacturer
-created humane working conditions, treated workers well, maintained a good profit, encouraged others to do the same
-after an attempt to create a community in American he started the Grand National Union trying to consolidate trade unions, collapsed in 1830s

New Lanark, Scotland

-location of Owen's enlightened factory

New Harmony, IN

-location of Owen's attempted community in America, failed

Jeremy Bentham

-create scientific laws to support and instill utilitarianism


-greatest happiness for greatest number of people
-wanted to reform judicial and legislative systems
-make poverty extremely unpleasant so that they will stop being lazy and earn some money (????)

Poor Law of 1834

-by Jeremy Bentham
-make poverty undesirable by through creating terrible conditions in workhouses

English Factory Act of 1833

-forbade employment of children under 9
-limited workday of children from 9-13 to nine hours
-factory owner must pay for 2 hours of education/ day
-further divided work and home life
-led to demanded reform for older workers so that they could spend more time with their children, legislation on 1847 made ten hour work day

Ten Hours Act

-limited workday to 10 hours

Second French Revolution

-forced Louis Philippe out of country
-got lower classes representation in government, universal male suffrage elected a new National Assembly
-after many deaths drive for social revolution disintegrated

Louis Blanc

-leader of working-class groups that demanded representation in cabinet
-"The Organization of Labor" called for political reform that would give vote to working class, ensure jobs through statea

National Workshops

-Louis Blanc's idea
-became poor relief rather than worker organization

June Days

-confirmed influence of conservative landowner in French life

General Cavaignac

-Crushed rebellion during June days.
-Nearly dictatorial powers
-Restricted the press, Suppressed the radicals, Instituted severe discipline on the workers.
-Remained a republican and the let assembly still write its constitution.

Frankfurt Parliament

-wanted to write liberal constitution for German Confederation
-had little support: conservatives didn't like disruption to order and working class didn't like opposition to guilds
-had little unity within itself over issue of German unification
-dissolved after Frederick William IV refused crown of united Germany


-desire to create one, Czech country
-Pan-Slavic Congress called for national equality of Slavs in Hapsburg Empire
-Russia supported it to gain large ally

Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon III)

-nephew of the Napoleon, had tried to overthrow monarchy in the past
-elected as president "Little Napoleon", wanted to make his own fame rather than help republican movement
-seized power as dictator, killed/arrested/exiled many protesters became Emperor Napoleon III

Four Ordinances

-Charles X passed acts during celebrations over naval victory in Algeria
-limited freedom of press, dissolved liberal elected Chamber of Deputies, restricted franchise to wealthy, and called for new elections under royalist franchise

July Revolution

-citizens of France rebelled in response to Four Ordinances
-Charles abdicated and was exiled to England
-Louis Philippe declared new king= ended Bourbon dynasty

July Days

-uprising in Paris during funeral of Napoleonic general
-government suppressed and killed many
-government continued to crush working class demonstrations (strikes etc.)

Great Reform Bill

-supported economic freedom and labor organizations
-Catholic Emancipation Act allowed Catholics in Parliament, Ireland was represented, prevented civil war
-abolish rotten boroughs, allowed wider variety of property holders representation in House of Commons
-rejected first in House of Commons then House of Lords, William IV forced pass in House of Lords


-womens group that represented growing feminist movement in France
-wanted household equality for genders, right to serve in military, similar dress
-lost support of moderate women over radical demands and demonstrations

"Voix de femmes"

-conservative womens' newspaper
-supported family role of women but asked for right to vote and economic rights
-completely ignored in elections, and crushed with legislation excluding them from politics

Hungarian March Revolution

-in March 1848, Louis Kossuth led opposition to Austrian control of Hungary, Magyar led
-caused Metternich to flee, and resulted in emancipated serfs
-March Laws= equality of religion, jury trials, election of lower chamber, freedom of press, taxed nobility, not autonomy for non-Magyars
-surrounding countries avoided annexation and Magyarization
-eventually defeated by Hapsburgs


-Britain led the way in railroad construction, followed slowly by France, then Germany
-represented investment in capital rather than consumer goods, this trend made life harder for working class
-high demand of iron and steel boosted those industries


-entry of workers into a wage economy and a gradual loss in their ownership of the tools of the trade
-urban artisans were effected more slowly than factory workers, factories even helped their business but they lost control of organization with the loss of guilds


-French term for production of products in standard sizes rather than custom ordered
-divided labor in workshop, less skill was necessary and therefore less valuable, skilled artisans became politically radical


-a radical artisan group in London issued charter with six reforms (Chartists)
1. universal male suffrage
2. annual election House of Commons
3. secret ballot
4. equal electoral districts
5. abolition of property requirements for HoC
6. payment of salaries to HoC
-never passed in Parliament and movement died when depression of 1830s-1840s died


-as men became breadwinners, and children entered the workforce, it was the wife/mother's duty to create a home environment
-most women didn't work after marriage
-working class family structure became more like the middle/upper class's


-crime was on the rise in cities
-officers were trained to keep order, created orderly European societies appreciated by the citizens who had hated the secret police

prison reform

-prisoners were kept in terrible conditions and treated harshly
-lack of sympathy slowed reforms but in the 1840s both England and France made an effort to rehabilitate rather than punish criminals

Karl Marx (Marxism)

-competed with other forms of socialism, became dominant
-he and Engels wrote "Communist Manifesto" (abolition of private property), inspired by Hegalianism, reforms are caused by class warfare, scientifically accurate
--> proletariats (workers) could take power from bourgeoisie (middle class) and end oppression for the first time in history

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