When the Spanish arrived in Mexico, they found that the _____, a once nomadic warrior tribe, were ruling much of the region.
Vasco da Gama
In 1497 and 1498, the Portuguese explorer _____ became the first European to sail all the way to India.
Asia, China, the Far East, the Orient
Columbus discovered the Americas while searching for a shorter route to _______.
Between 1519 and 1522, _____ led a Spanish expedition that became the first to sail all the way around the world.
Spanish _____ or conquerors, led the early expeditions that subdued the native populations of Mexico, Chile, and Peru.
When the Spanish moved into New Mexico in the 1500s and 1600s, they alternately fought with and cooperated with the _____ Indians who lived in the region.
In the 1500s, the majority of the Native American peoples who died did so not because of warfare but because of _____ brought by the Europeans.
When Columbus returned from his voyage to the New World, he brought with him the new American crop of _____, which soon became an important staple in Europe.
The _____ were people of mixed race that arose in South America due to the interracial contacts between the Spanish colonies and the natives.
By the fifteenth century, the people of upper _____ had substantial commercial relations with the Mediterranean world.
African societies tended to be _____ which means that heredity is traced through, and property is inherited from, the mother.
In 1497, _____ led an English expedition that sailed along the northeastern coast of North America.
From the 1500s to 1700s, the elites of England and the rest of Europe believed in the economic concept of ___________.
The _____ began in Germany with Martin Luther's attacks on the Catholic Church and eventually spread to other parts of Europe, including England.
Because he wanted a divorce that the pope refused to grant him, _____ broke England's ties with the Roman Catholic Church.
The _____ were a group of English religious dissenters of the 1500s and 1600s who believed that the Church of England needed many reforms.
The English learned the lessons that they later applied in North America in their attempt to conquer _____.
Coureurs de bois
The keys to the French Empire in North America were the _____, adventurous fur traders who penetrated far into the wilderness to trade with the Indians.
In 1588, King Philip II of Spain sent one of the largest fleets in history, the _____ to attack England.
Sir _____ financed and organized the expedition that placed the first English colony in what is now the United States.
Because of the fate of the colony at Roanoke, it has acquired the name of the _________.
In the fall of 1608, _____ took control of Jamestown and imposed work and order on the community.
_____ developed Jamestown's first marketable crop and married the daughter of the local Indian chief.
To encourage settlement, some English colonies established the _____ system, which gave fifty-acre grants of land to each new settler.
Bacon's Rebellion was in some ways a personal contest between Nathaniel Bacon and Governor _____.
The agreement drawn up by the Pilgrims prior to stepping ashore at Plymouth was known as the _____.
: City on the hill
The founders of Massachusetts believed they were founding a holy commonwealth, or a _____ a, model for the corrupt to see and emulate.
Colonial Massachusetts was, in effect, a _____, a society in which the Church was almost indistinguishable from the government.
For a time in the mid 1600s, the only colony in which people of all faiths (including Judaism) could worship without interference was _____.
Some of Anne Hutchinson's followers went north from Massachusetts to found _____, which became a formal colony in 1679.
When the forces of Parliament won the English Civil War, _____ replaced the king and assumed the position of "protector" of the English government.
Between 1660 and 1688, all new English colonies in North America were of the _____ type, which means that one man or a few men, none of whom were the king, had a tremendous amount of control over the affairs of the colony.
In the Caribbean, Spain and England began to rely on an enslaved African work force on _____ plantations.
When Spain realized that English merchants and French and Russian trappers were present in the West, it began to colonize the territory of _____.
The Parliamentary Acts drawn up in 1660, 1663, and 1673, which formed the basis of England's mercantile system in America, were known collectively as the _____.
Dominion of New England
In an attempt to consolidate all of the colonies from New Hampshire to New Jersey into one "supercolony," James II created the _____.
William and Mary
The Glorious Revolution deposed James II and brought _____ to the throne of Great Britain.
The system under which young men and women bound themselves to masters for fixed terms in exchange for passage to America, food, and shelter is called _____.
After the 1650s, in New England and the mid-Atlantic colonies, the most important source of population growth was _____.
Settlers in the colonies developed immunity to the local diseases by a slow process known as _____.
Because it was the second of three legs on some New England trading voyages, the long journey from Africa to America carrying slaves became known as the _____.
The legal systems that granted almost absolute authority to white masters over their slaves in the 1700s were known as _____.
The most numerous non-English settlers in the English colonies of North America were the _____.
Tobacco, rice, indigo
Most important for the economy of the southern colonies were the agricultural industries that produced cash crops like _____.
The New England trade in rum, slaves, sugar, and molasses is described, somewhat inaccurately, as the _____.
The ability of people to move both up and down the "ladder of success" is called _____.
The most important slave revolt of the colonial period was the _____ Rebellion of 1739 which occurred in South Carolina.
_____ is the English legal principle under which the firstborn son inherits all of his father's estate.
The most famous outbreak of the witchcraft hysteria of the 1680s and 1690s occurred in _____.
The intellectual movement of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries emphasized science and reason was the _____.
The emotional religious revival of the late 1600s and early 1700s was known as the _____.
The outstanding preacher of the religious revival of the 1700s was the New England Congregationalist _____.
The majority of the colleges in pre-Revolutionary America were established as training centers for _____.
John Peter Zenger
At the 1734 trial of New York publisher _____, the court ruled that criticisms of the government were not libelous if factually true.
In 1751, _____ wrote the plan presented in Albany for creating a general government in British America, but it was never approved by the colonies.
French plantations in the southern colonies of North America were owned by _____, white immigrants of French descent.
A force led by _____ started the French and Indian War by attacking a French fort in the Ohio valley.
Ascending to the throne in 1760, _____ proved an ineffective ruler because he was easily controlled by his ambitious mother and suffered from intermittent bouts of insanity.
As the French and Indian War came to an end in 1763, _____ succeeded his brother-in-law, William Pitt, as prime minister in 1763.
During the 1760s and 1770s, Americans began to defend vigorously the concept of _____, which held that colonials should govern themselves on matters that directly affected their own colonies, while allowing Britain to handle matters of foreign policy.
When accused of treason for predicting that George III would lose his head if British policies toward the colonies were not reversed, _____ supposedly replied: "If this be treason, make the most of it."
Sons of Liberty
In Boston, the _____ terrorized stamp agents and burned stamps to protest the Stamp Act of 1765.
In the 1760s, the _____ was the most graphic symbol of British oppression and brutality to occur in the colonies.
Americans, drawing on their experiences in colonial assemblies, believed in actual representation instead of the British philosophy of _____ representation.
Daughters of Liberty
The _____ was the women's patriotic organization that agitated against British policies in general and the Tea Act specifically.
The _____ Acts, or Coercive Acts, made a martyr of Massachusetts and sparked new resistance to Britain up and down the coast.
General _____ commanded the British troops that exchanged shots with the minutemen and touched off the American Revolution.
Olive Branch Petition
The _____ was the last American appeal to King George III to reconcile with the colonials.
Americans who supported the British during the American Revolution are usually referred to as _____.
_____ was one of the Americans' best generals in the early part of the Revolution, fighting splendidly at Quebec and Fort Stanwix
General _____, who became the new British commander in 1776, wanted to awe the Americans into submission rather than to fight them.
During the American Revolution, the most effective American diplomat in France was_____.
The American Revolution truly became revolutionary when most of the combat shifted to the _____.
In 1780, a major battle took place at _____ in the Carolinas, in which almost all of the forces on both sides were Americans.
During the American Revolution, the church that suffered most in the United States was the _____ Church.
Women who stayed with their male relatives when they went off to war were known as _____.
_____, the wife of one of the American Revolutionary leaders, was one of the early advocates of expanding women's rights.
During the 1700s, civilian vessels that tried to capture the civilian ships of an enemy country were called _____.
After their first experiences in the 1770s under the new state constitutions, most state governments strengthened the _____ branch of state government.
_____ wrote Virginia's 1786 Statute of Religious Liberty, which called for the complete separation of church and state.
In 1794, General _____ led an American army that defeated a large Indian force at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
The most effective advocate of the new U.S. Constitution was _____ who later became the first
Before _____ decided to attend the Philadelphia convention, there seemed little reason to believe that the meeting would become something as crucial in American history as the Constitutional Convention.
Some Americans affectionately refer to the men who were instrumental in starting the current United States government by writing the U.S. Constitution as the _____.
After Edmund Randolph presented the Virginia Plan to the Constitutional Convention, _____ offered the alternative New Jersey Plan on behalf of the small states.
The "Great Compromise" proposed that each slave would be counted as _____ of a free person in determining the basis for representation and taxation.
_____ became the most important person at the Constitutional Convention by contributing major ideas to the debates and by drafting much of the final document.
Checks and balances
The most distinctive feature of the Constitution was its separation of powers, which relied on a system of _____ to ensure that each branch of government would try to keep the others from exceeding their powers.
The United States has a _____ structure of government that divides power between the state governments and the national government.
The _____ were an early political party that believed that the nation should maintain a modest central government with a predominantly rural and agrarian society.
Despite the fact that some people objected that the Constitution did not provide the authority to create a(n) _____, Congress chartered it for a period of twenty years, and it began operations in 1791.
Alexander Hamilton believed that a good way to fund the national debt was to place duties on the manufacture, sale, or consumption of certain commodities within a country. In other words, he asked Congress to pass _____ taxes.
Alexander Hamilton advocated placing taxes on foreign goods entering this country so that domestic products would be able to compete with them. Such taxes are called _____.
When the farmers in western Pennsylvania began terrorizing tax collectors in 1794, the resulting chaos became known as the _____ Rebellion.
_____ was the first diplomatic representative from revolutionary France to the United States.
In 1795, American and Spanish diplomats negotiated _____ Treaty, which settled most conflicts between the two countries.
When French diplomats demanded a bribe before they would negotiate with American representatives, the resulting controversy became known as the _____.
The 1798 act that discouraged immigration and encouraged some foreigners to leave the United States was called the _____ Act.
In the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison stated their belief in the concept of _____, the idea that a state could refuse to enforce within its boundaries a federal law that it thought was unconstitutional.
During the election of 1800, the Republican vice presidential candidate, _____, helped his party carry the state of New York and thus the nation.