49 terms

Ch 12 Territorial and Economic Expansion, 1830-1860

Key Names, Events, and Terms from the 2010 Amsco book (a few terms were added) Note: If changes are necessary, please notify me in the chat box.

Terms in this set (...)

manifest destiny
This term spread across the land as the rallying cry for westward expansion. This phrase expressed the popular belief that the United States had a divine mission to extend its power and civilization across the breadth of North America. Enthusiasm for expansion reached a fever pitch in the 1840s. It was driven by many forces: nationalism, population increase, rapid economic development, technological advances, and reform ideas. However, all Americans were not united under this ideal
Mexican northern frontier province, which had just won its national independence from Spain in 1823. Mexico then hoped to attract settlers - even Anglo settlers - to farm in this sparsely populated area
Stephen Austin
Son of Moses Austin, a Missouri banker, who had obtained a large land grant in Texas but died before he could carry out his plan to recruit American settlers for this land. His son then had succeeded in bringing 300 families into Texas and thereby beginning a steady migration of American settlers into the vast frontier territory. By 1830, Americans outnumbered the Mexicans in Texas by three to one
Antonio López de Santa Anna
In 1834, he made himself dictator of Mexico and abolished that nation's federal system of government
Sam Houston
Led a group of American settlers and revolted and declared Texas to be an independent republic (March 1836), when Santa Anna insisted on enforcing Mexico's laws in Texas
A Mexican army led by Santa Anna captured the town of Goliad and attacked this city in San Antonio, killing every one of its American defenders
Battle of the San Jacinto River
Battle in which an army under Sam Houston caught the Mexicans by surprise and captured their general, Santa Anna. Under the threat of death, he was forced to sign a treaty that recognized Texas' independence and granted the new republic all territory north of the Rio Grande. When the news of this battle reached Mexico City, however, the Mexican legislature rejected the treaty and insisted that Texas was still part of Mexico
John Tyler
The president (1841-1845) after Martin Van Buren, who was a southern Whig, and was worried about the growing influence of the British in Texas. He worked to annex Texas, but the U.S. Senate rejected his treaty of annexation in 1844
Aroostook War
Also known as the "battle of the maps", this war sought to resolve the conflict over the ill-defined boundary between Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. At this time, Canada was still under British rule, and many Americans regarded Britain as their country's worst enemy - an attitude carried over from 2 previous wars (the Revolution and the War of 1812). A conflicted between rival groups of lumbermen on the Maine-Canadian border erupted into open fighting
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
The conflict, known as the Aroostook War was resolved with this treaty in 1842. This was negotiated by U.S. Secretary of State Daniel Webster and the British ambassador, Lord Alexander Ashburton. In this treaty, the disputed territory was split between Maine and British Canada. It also settled the boundary of the Minnesota territory, leaving what proved to be the iron-rich Mesabi range on the U.S. side of the border
Oregon Territory
A vast territory on the Pacific Coast that originally stretched as far north as the Alaskan border. At one time, this territory was claimed by four different nations: Spain, Russia, Great Britain, and the United States. A serious dispute, however, developed over this territory between Britain and the United States. Britain based its claim to Oregon on the Hudson Fur Company's profitable fur trade with the Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest. By 1846, however, there were fewer than a thousand Britishers living north of the Columbia River. The U.S. based its claim to on (1) the discovery of the Columbia River by Captain Robert Gray in 1792, (2) the overland expedition to the Pacific Coast by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in 1805, and (3) the fur trading post and fort in Astoria, Oregon, established by John Jacob Astor in 1811. Manifest destiny clearly applied to this territory
Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819
Treaty in which Spain gave up its claim to Oregon to the United States
Fifty-four Forty or Fight!
The Democratic slogan which appealed strongly to American westerners and southerners who in 1844 were in an expansionist mood. It referred to the line of latitude that marked the border between the Oregon Territory and Russian Alaska. However, President Polk backed down from this slogan and was willing to settle for just the southern half of Oregon. The British and American negotiators agreed to divide it at the 49th parallel
James K. Polk
Also known as a dark horse (lesser known candidate), this man chosen in the Democratic nomination. He had been a protegé of Andrew Jackson. Firmly committed to expansion and manifest destiny, he favored the annexation of Texas, the "reoccupation" of all of Oregon, and the acquisition of California
Rio Grande
The Mexico-Texas border that was asserted by Polk and Slidell, which was further south than the Nueces River
Nueces River
The Mexico-Texas border according to the Mexican government
Mexican War
The war between Mexico and the U.S. (1846-1847), which started because of Polk's order to General Zachary Taylor to move his army toward the Rio Grande across territory claimed by Mexico. On April 24, 1846, a Mexican army crossed the Rio Grande and captured an American army patrol, killing 11. Polk used the incident to send his already prepared war message to Congress. However, this incident was opposed by northern Whigs as a legitimate reason to go to war because American blood had not been shed on American soil
Zachary Taylor
General who was ordered by Polk to move his army toward the Rio Grande across territory claimed by Mexico. In February 1847, he won a major victory at Buena Vista after crossing the Rio Grande into northern Mexico with a force of 6,000 men
Stephen Kearney
General who led a force which never exceeded 1,500, and succeeded in taking Santa Fe, the New Mexico territory, and southern California
Winfield Scott
General who invaded central Mexico. The army of 14,000 under his command succeeded in taking the coastal city of Vera Cruz and then captured Mexico City in Sept. 1847
John C. Frémont
American military officer who quickly overthrew Mexican rule in northern California (June 1846) and proclaimed California to be an independent republic. He was backed by only several dozen soldiers, a few navy officers, and American civilians who had recently settled in California
Bear Flag Republic
The independent republic of California which has a bear on its flag
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The treaty negotiated in Mexico by American diplomat Nicholas Trist who provided for the following: (1) Mexico would recognize the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas, and (2) The United States would take possession of the former provinces of California and New Mexico. For these territories, the U.S. would pay $15 million and assume the claims of American citizens against Mexico. In the Senate, some Whigs opposed it because they saw the war as an immoral effort to expand slavery. A few southern Democrats dislike the treaty because they wanted the U.S. to take all of Mexico
Mexican Cession
The former Mexican provinces of California and New Mexico, which were given to the U.S. as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Wilmot Proviso
In 1846, the first year of war, Pennsylvania Congressman David Wilmot proposed an amendment to an appropriations bill to forbid slavery in any of the new territories acquired form Mexico. It passed the House twice but was defeated in the Senate. Some view it as the first round in an escalating political conflict that led ultimately to civil war
Franklin Pierce
Elected to the presidency in 1852, he adopted pro-southern policies and dispatched 3 American diplomats to Ostend, Belgium, where they secretly negotiated to buy Cuba from Spain
Ostend Manifesto
Drawn up by the diplomats sent to Ostend, where they secretly negotiated to buy Cuba from Spain. It later got leaked to the press in the United States and provoked an angry reaction from antislavery members of Congress. President Pierce was forced to drop the scheme; (1852)
Walker Expedition
Southern adventurer William Walker had tried unsuccessfully to take Baja California from Mexico in 1853. Finally, leading a force mostly of southerners, he took over Nicaragua in 1855. His regime even gained temporary recognition from the United States in 1856. Walker's grandiose scheme to develop a proslavery Central American empire collapsed, however, when a coalition of Central American countries invaded and defeated him. He was executed by Honduran authorities
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
1850 treaty between Britain and the United States, which provided that neither nation would attempt to take exclusive control of any future canal route in Central America. This treaty continued in force until the end of the century
Gadsden Purchase
1853 purchase, in which Pierce added a strip of land to the American Southwest for a railroad. In 1853, Mexico had agreed to sell thousands of acres of semi-desert land to the United States for $10 million. The land forms the southern sections of New Mexico and Arizona
Great American Desert
The arid area between the Mississippi Valley and the Pacific Coast. Emigrants passed over this region to reach the more inviting lands on the West Coast
mountain men
Fur traders who were the earliest nonnative group to open the Far West. In the 1820s, they held yearly rendezvous in the Rockies with Native Americans to trade for animal skins
Far West
Pacific states that were the focus of Manifest Destiny: California, Oregon, Texas, etc.
overland trails
The long and arduous trek which usually began in St. Joseph or Independence, Missouri, or in Council Bluffs, Iowa, and followed the river valleys through the Great Plains. These trails were followed by large groups of pioneers who took the hazardous journey west in hopes of clearing the forests and farming the fertile valleys of California and Oregon. Months later, the wagon trains would finally reach the foothills of the Rockies or face the hardships of the southwestern deserts. The final challenge was to get through the mountain passes of the Sierras and Cascades before the first heavy snow. A wagon train inched westward at an average rate of only 15 miles a day. Far more serious than any threat of attack by Indians were the daily experience of disease and depression from harsh conditions on the trail
mining frontier
The discovery of gold in CA in 1848 caused the first flood of newcomers to the West. A series of gold strikes and silver strikes in what became the states of Colorado, Nevada, Idaho, Montana, Arizona, and South Dakota kept a steady flow of hopeful young prospectors pushing into the Western mountains
gold rush
Migration to California (1848-1850) because of the discovery of gold
silver rush
Miners rused to Coloroado, Nevado, the Black Hills of the Dakotas, and other western states to search for silver
farming frontier
The area which pioneer families sought to start homesteads and begin farming. The government made it easier for settlers to move here. However, the move was mainly for the middle-class. The isolation of this area made life for pioneers especially difficult during the first years, but rural communities soon developed.
urban frontier
Western cities that arose as a result of railroads, mineral wealth, and farming. This attracted a number of professionals and businesspersons (e.g. San Francisco, Denver, and Salt Lake City)
industrial technology
This was a result of the period of economic growth from the 1840s to 1857. Before 1840, factory production had mainly been concentrated in the textile mills of New England. After 1840, industrialization spread rapidly to the other states of the Northeast. The new factories produced shoes, sewing machines, ready-to-wear clothing, firearms, precision tools, and iron products for railroads and other new technologies
Elias Howe
Inventor of the sewing machine who took much of the production of clothing out of the home into the factory
Samuel F. B. Morse
Inventor of a successful electric telegraph (1844) which went hand in hand with the growth of railroads in enormously speeding up communication and transportation across the country
These soon emerged as America's largest industry and replaced canals. They required immense amounts of capital and labor and gave rise to complete business organizations. Local merchants and farmers would often buy stocks in the new companies in order to connect their area to the outside world. Local and state governments also helped them grow by granting special loans and tax breaks. They not only united the common commercial interests of the Northeast and Midwest, but would also give the North strategic advantages in the Civil War
federal land grants
Federal government granted land for railroad companies to build more routes with these. In 1850, the first such grant was given when the U.S. government granted 2.6 million acres of federal land to build the Illinois Central Railroad from Lake Michigan to the Gulf of Mexico
foreign commerce
Commerce with foreign nations. This was increased as a result of the growth in manufactured goods as well as in agricultural products. Other factors also played a role in the expansion of U.S. trade in the mid-1800s
exports and imports
These grew significantly as a result of the growth in manufactured goods as well as in agricultural products (both western grains and southern cotton)
Matthew C. Perry
Commodore sent to Japan to persuade that country to open up its ports to trade with Americans. In 1854, he convinced Japan's government to agree to a treaty that opened two Japanese ports to U.S. trading vessels
The country which opened up 2 ports to U.S. trading vessels because of Commodore Perry's influence
Panic of 1857
Financial panic which ended the mid-century economic boom. There was a serious drop in prices, especially for midwestern farmers, and increased unemployment in northern cities. The South were less affected, for cotton prices remained high. This fact gave some southerners the idea that their plantation economy was superior