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block 2 diseases
Terms in this set (42)
Inflammation of the fascia. Can occur as a side effect of breast augmentation. A capsular contraction forms as the fascia grows up around the implant and thickens. Can cause reduced mobility of the shoulder on that side due to the thickening and hardening of the fascia.
Snappy shoulder syndrome
As shoulder is protracted and retracted a popping sound occurs due to the friction of subscapularis muscle and serratus anterior grinding against each others due to their inflammation
Nursemaid's elbow (pulled elbow)
In children the fit of the annular ligament to head & neck of radius is not as tight so a sharp jerk on hand or forearm can pull radius free of annular ligament, dislocating proximal radioulnar joint
Rot is restricted to one compartment of the arm, leaving the other alone. Compartments are on the humerus and are anterior and posterior. Pressure is built up in one compartment of arm and nerves and vessels of that compartment can be damaged. To fix this you may have to break open the compartment.
Chronic wrist pain
Can be caused by injury of interosseous ligaments. Particularly scaphoid-lunate and lunate-triquetrum interosseous ligaments.
Gamekeeper's thumb/skier's thumb
Torn ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb
Ulnar collateral ligament displaced by adductor pollicis aponeurosis; seen in context of Gamekeeper's thumb
Tennis elbow/lateral epicondylitis
Caused by wrist stabilization while forcefully extending elbow. Particular issues with extensor carpi radialis brevis.
No wrist extension, no finger/thumb extension & lost cutaneous sensation, injury of proper radial nerve. Proximal interosseous nerve injury, maintains wrist extensions, but still loses finger/thumb extension.
Cubital tunnel syndrome
Caused by chronic compression of ulnar nerve. numbness of 4-5 digits, weak hands
Caused by chronic compression at Guyon's canal. Has impact on ulnar innervated hand muscles & palmar cutaneous distribution, but not dorsal cutaneous distribution. Dorsal branch of ulnar nerve branches before Guyon's canal. More proximal lesion at cubital tunnel will elicit both palmar & dorsal cutaneous loss.
Fracture of scaphoid bone
Can kill scaphoid bone; scaphoid bone fed by a recurrent branch of radial artery
tingling; compression of nerve (ex: median nerve compresison in carpal tunnel)
nerve conduction block; compression of nerve (ex: median nerve compresison in carpal tunnel)
Pressure in carpal tunnel
Tunnel is approx. 20 mm wide. Flexor retinaculum under constant tension. If pressure increases (normally 2-31 mmHg) median nerve is compressed, yielding paresthesia (tingling) & chronically neurapraxia (conduction block). Pressure can increase due to carpal bone dislocations, fractures, cyst growth, & tendonitis due to repetitive motion. Pressure naturally increases in wrist flexion & hyperextension. OMT has been shown to increase dimensions of tunnel by stretching soft tissue, releasing adhesions, reducing edema, & eliminating restricted motion, thus improving nerve conduction.
Infections of bursae
Present with particular patterns of infection spread. Ulnar & radial bursae with in carpal tunnel may be inflamed as part of carpal tunnel syndrome.
Stenosing tenosynovitis (trigger finger)
Caliber of opening for tendon to pass thru sheath is reduced and/or tendon has a swollen nodule due to inflammation; causes clicking as tendon tries to pass thru opening
Flattening of thenar & hyothenar eminence may indicate nerve palsies.
chronic ulnar nerve compression, caused by guttering of interosseous spaces is indicative of
Biceps tendon rupture:
Biceps pulls away from insertion point
Extra toe or finger, usually on lateral side. Autosomal dominant trait often found in closed communities (Amish)
Webbing of digits, often between second & third toes. Most common limb anomaly.Two types: cutaneous syndactyly (failure of webs to degenerate) & osseous syndactyly (notches fail to appear.)
Clubfoot (congenital talipes equinovarus):
Deformity of foot involving talus (ankle bone). Sole of foot is turned medially & foot is inverted. Most common in males.
Cleft foot (lobster claw):
Absence of one or more central digits resulting from failure of development of one or more digital rays.
Congenital dislocation of hip:
Occurs after birth & more common in females. May involve abnormal development of acetabulum of the hip bone & head of femur. Common in breech deliveries.
Absence of limb. Teratogen induced limb defect, caused by using thalidomide as drug (sleeping pill and antinauseant)
Genetic deficiency of specific lysosomal enzyme involved in catabolism of sphingolipids.
Tay Sachs and Gaucher
Deficiency of beta-hexosaminidase results in accumulation of GM2.
Symptoms: neurodegeneration, blindness, cherry-red macula, muscular weakness, seizures.
Most common sphingolipidoses. Deficiency of glucocerebrosidase results in accumulation of glubocerebroside.
Symptoms: hepatosplengomegaly, osteoporosis of long bones, and severe neurological signs
infantile respiratory distress
Alzheimer's, Parkinsons. Possible that microglial cells are partially responsible from plaque formation, demyelination & destruction of nerve fibers in CNS.
Mononuclear phagocytic line
Disappearance of myeline sheath in CNS. Associated with oligodendrocytes.
Tumors, malignant astrocytes. Most common type of brain tumor; astrocytes give rise to 80% brain tumors
glial scars by astrocytes at sites of brain injury.
Virus gets into muscles after an infected bite and starts to replicate. Vaccine helpful for 1-2 weeks. After replication the virus finds a motor-end plate & gets into cleft. Virus enters synaptic terminal via retrograde axonal transport & reaches body of motor neuron in CNS where it can spread to other neurons. Causes severe inflammation & changes in light intensity or sound can cause seizures. Virus spreads into salivary glands so it can be transmitted easier. After symptoms there is no cure.
Autoimmune disease, Abs produced against NAR receptors of muscle cells. Exteme muscle weakness.
binds to acetycholinereceptors (NAR), prevents triggering of muscle, relaxes muscle
prevents release of acetycholine vesicles from presynaptic cell; muscle relaxant
inhibit enzyme that degrades norep or high affinity reuptake
Antibodies against thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors.
Due to undernutrition in both adults and children. Extreme emaciation and loss of protein from muscle, heart, liver, and kidneys.
Undernourished children primarily in developing world. Deficient in proteins. Poor growth, low plasma protein & amino acid levels, muscle wasting, edema, fatty liver, diarrhea, & increased susceptibility to infection
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