Terms in this set (450)
What are the products that bees make?
What is the most important of all the products that bees make
How do you determine what type of honey you have?
predominant material that was extracted
T/F Honey changes every year
True; depends on what was in bloom
What is the definition of honey
nectar sugar exidation from plants, then gathered, modified, and stored by honey bees
One volume = ? Volume sugar sweetness
What is the break down of honey typically?
what is the ideal percentage of moisture in honey?
What is the % moisture of UMD honey
what is the pH of UMD honey
what are the three factors that determine how long honey will store indefinitely?
What is the detailed break down of the percentages of what is in UMD honey?
What sugars are found in honey? And which ones are more prominent by ranking?
What is the main enzyme that is linked to how long honey will store?
What is honey dew?
When a bee takes up too much sugar from plants it needs to get rid of it, so it is excreted from its back, it is sucrose (concentrated sugar)
What causes the crystals to form in honey?
What is the honey grade breakdown?
flavor - 50 pts
no defects 40 pts
Total: 100 pts
What constitutes as an A for honey grade?
90 pts and above
What constitutes as an B for honey grade?
70 - 89 pts
What name is attributed to B grade honey?
What constitutes as an C for honey grade?
what name is attributed to C grade honey?
standard bakers grade
What is D grade honey considered?
what does honey do in baking?
T/F COlor is a factor for grade
What is the honey at the store?
super filtered, pasturized, grade A
What are some defects?
Why do superfiltering?
to remove particles that can cause crystal formation
What two ways is honey marketed?
What is the bees view of the importance of honey?
1. Concentration of sweetness--stored energy
2. pH, moisture, enzyme factors that can preserve it indefinitely (mead wine)
3. antibacterial properties
What is mead wine?
honey + water + spit --> ferments --> preservation
WHat are two types of extracted honey? ANd where are there markets concentrated?
honey spread- Canada and Europe
What is characteristic of extracted honey?
super filtered and pasturized
what process is attributed to extracted honey.
What is the DICE method?
Take crystals of honey, and seed the hone into a smooth spread
What temperature will honey not crystallize?
What temperature will honey crystallize?
What is wrong with crystals?
reduces clarity and bcms granny
DICE process makes crystals at the right size so that you get a _____ texture of crystallized honey
Which is more expensive extracted or combed honey
what types of comb are there
bulk whole frame
what by what are section combs
4 by 4 blocks
what is characteristic of cut comb?
8ths or 6ths, edges dont have structure
What is the biggest detractor for selling honey?
What are the four factors for crystallization
1. ratio of sugar
4. source of nectar
greater portion of _____ and _____ in ratio with ______ means more likely to form crystals
---relates to ratio of sugar in the four factors for crystalization
what is the formula for index number in teh four factors for crystallization?
% sucrose / % moisture = Index #
what index number is attributed to being a low granulation of honey?
1.7 and below
What index number is attributed to being a high granulation of honey?
2 and above
how much crystallization occurs at 0 degrees?
Nectar from which flowers favors crystallization?
goldenrod and aster
Nectar from which flower does not favor crystallization?
Is the DICE process pasturized?
why does honey need to be pasturized
What is unique about DICE process in crystallization
it is controlled
There is no benifits to crystalization? T/F
False, Dice process
What is common way to get rid of crystals?
heat up honey
Do crystals mean teh honey has spoiled?
What are the properties of honey?
density (12 lbs/gallon)
At what percentage of moisture is honey hydroscopic?
17.2% can get up to 25 %
what is bad about honey being hydroscopic?
fermetns and spoilage can occur
what is the density of honey
12 lbs / gallon
what are some colors of honey?
amber, white, black
What are the enzymes found in honey?
Which enzyme converts sucrose into fructose and glucose?
what does invertase do
converts sucrose into fructose and glucose
What enzyme converts starches to sugars in honey?
what does amalyse do
converts starches to sugar
how can you deactivate amalyse
super heating in pasturization
What does HMF indicate?
HMF shows up at 160 degrees so it is an indicator of over heating
what temp do you take honey to for pasturization
What happens if honey is taken up to 160 degrees
enzyme HMF shows up
WHat does glucose oxidase do?
breaks down glucose
what enzyme breaks down glucose?
Where do you find glucose oxidase
what are the products produce by glucose oxidase
gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide
What enzyme is responsible for preservation for a long time?
what is the physical characteristics of honey dew?
watery excrement, drops down in ropey formation, ropeyness increases viscosity
How do you collect pollen with a pollen trap?
bees force to go through screen adn honey balls on back legs get scraped off
What is the relationship between pollen intake and reproduction
greater pollen intake greater amount of reproduction
What is wrong with taking too much pollen from pollen trap
What macromolecule is found in pollen?
what percentage is protein in date pollen?
What do we use pollen for?
suppliments, allergies, beekeepers use it as food for begining of the year
1 lb pollen = ____ honey bees
? lbs pollen/yr/colony
how much can you increase pollen yeild if use pollen traps?
How do bees use propolus
antimicrobial and sterilization
seal up intruders (mummify killed pests to sterilize)
how do we use propolus
Mix with alcohol and antimicrobial liquid
What is the melting point of bees wax
At what temp is bees wax the most placiticty
what color is pure bees wax
___ lbs honey = 1 lb wax
TF us can meet demand for bees wax
What are 8 uses for bees wax
Why/how do beekeepers us bees wax for foundation?
beekeepers use old wax as foundation for where bees to start building new comb, can control wehre bees build
What do you use for wax extraction?
what is slum gumb?
left over wax after extraction
How do we use royal jelly
cosmetics and food
What is the break down of royal jelley
60 water, 12.5 protein, 5.5 fat
where does royal jelly come from?
hyperphorengial and mandibular gland (oil part)
How do we use bee venom?
desensenstivation to bee stings (like flu shot, build up immunity)
What illness can be treated with bee venom
bee venom is produced up to what day
how do we use the bees themselves
what percentage of brood is protien adn fat
15 protein, 4 fat
what vitamins are rich in bee brood
vitamin A and D
what are two type of pollinating floweres (nectarines)
floral and extra floral
floral or extra-floral: produce nectar to encourage animals to increase cross polination
floral or extra-floral: attract predator bugs so that animals do not eat the plant
Why does floral nectarine produce nectar?
encourage anmials to come by so inc cross pollination
What type of animal does extrafloral nectarine want to attract?
predator bugs--wasp and ants
what is the example of the type of animal that extra-floral nectarines are trying to prevent from attacking it by using predator bugs
what relationship exists between extrafloral and predator bugs?
What are 4 animal pollinators?
marsupiles, birds, bats, rodents
what are the 4 insect pollinators?
flies, beatles, butterflys, bees
What animals perfer night blooms?
bats, moths, insects
What are the some habits of blooming
-full bloom for a plant a diferent tiemn of day
-blooms at different times in year
-species per time of day
why do plants bloom at diff times of year
how can different plants that bloom at same time of year coeexist?
bloom different times of day
why do plants bloom at different times?
dont want pollen to go to waste, such as species A blooms at noon only species A plants open so pollen isnt wasted on species B, bc species B opens at night.
what is traplining?
spreak risk of pollination by openning up a certain number of flowers each day instaead of all at once
what are the 9 factors that influence pollination effectivness?
2. clustinger of flowers
5. Cycle of plant
7. brood cycle of pollinator
9. Flower Shape
For the 9 factors that influence pollination effectivness, when looking at color ________ < _________
solid < splattered
For the 9 factors that influence pollination effectivness, when looking at color what does UV mean?
usually in lines and patterns for road map where nectar is
For the 9 factors that influence pollination effectiveness, when looking at color, what is significant about red?
cant be seen by bees and favorite of hummingbirds
For the 9 factors that influence pollination effectiveness, when looking at aroma, why is this a factor?
flower smells like sister bee
For the 9 factors that influence pollination effectiveness, when looking at cluster ____ >______
lots of small > one big
For the 9 factors that influence pollination effectiveness, when looking at concentration of sugar an pollen, give an example.
apple > pear
For the 9 factors that influence pollination effectiveness, when looking at cycle, what four factors effect this subcategory?
c. time of day
d. booming all at once or trap lining
For the 9 factors that influence pollination effectiveness, when looking at brood cycle, how does this factor come into play?
if the brood cycle is going then that means more pollination is needed
For the 9 factors that influence pollination effectiveness, when looking at flower shape, short flowers are (more or less) effective than long flowers?
short is more effective bc less effort
what are the insect pollinators?
what are the animal pollinators
bats, birds, mammals
What are the three mediums for pollination
wind, water, animal
What are the five reasons that bees are good pollinators?
1. Foraging behavior
2. Colonies mobile
3. Colonies are parineal
4. Nectar and pollen are only food
5. Flower constant/fidelity
For the 5 factors for why bees are good pollinators, looking at foraging behavior what does this sub category really mean?
have a large range of flowers and crops that they can pollinate
their body design, lots of hair
For the 5 factors for why bees are good pollinators, looking at how flower constant what does this sub category really mean?
flower fidelity--start on one species and stick with it
1 colony of of 4000 can produce what amount of honey compared to 4 smaller colonies of 1000
TF one large colony produce more honey than a equal amount of bees but in smaller colonies
What time of year do drones come in?
what trees come in march?
mints, mustards, rose
what month do you want to stimulate bees?
febuary and march
what do you do to stimulate bees
give them sugar water and pollen
why do you stimulate bees with sugar water
how do you control the level of pollination
manipulate the brood cycle
what time of year does the queen come in
march to early june
when do you see the larges population
when is the spring flow
what pollination plants are seen in the spring flow
legumes examples: clovers and buckwheat
how many peaks are there in the year
when do the bees most likely to swarm?
peak in late june/early july
what month is the fall flow
when are the drones killed
when is the swarm period?
april to june
what is the correlation between swarm period and the population
largest population, most likely to swarm
TF there are generally 1-2 pollinatating colonies per ochard
what are some pollinating orchards
cherries, squash, apple, cucumbers
what pollinating orchard is associated with cross pollination?
What direction do bees migrate along the coast
florida to north
what is the box to orchard bee movment rate
How can you determine the pollination productivity?
square inches of brood
why are square inches of brood demonstrative of pollination productivity
brood demonstrate demand for pollen
What percentage of the american diet is based on pollination?
What are the pollinating bees that are not social
bummble bee (bombus)
Blue orchard Bee
Which bees overwinter?
which bees are used commercially to pollinate kiwis and tomatos?
WHere do you find alfalfa bees?
wehre do you find alkali bee?
What two bees use chewed up leaves to seal up cappings?
alfalfa and alkali
what is a dough ball
pollen + nectar
how do bees prevent inbreeding when laying eggs
first egg layed is female and last egg layed is male
what two bees are found in holes?
blue orchard bee and mason bee
What are the osmia bees?
blue orchard bee and mason bee
what type of bees are the blue orchard bee and mason bee
what does the mason bee use to seal cappings
what is special about the bumble, alfalfa, alkali, blue orchard, and mason bee
what are two other terms for solitary bees
congregation and colonial
describe life cycle of alfala bee
makes a nest in a bunch of holes, pupa make a cucoon and gather theses puppa and free them and bring out during season
describe life cycle of alkali bee
makes a nest in teh ground and uses a pollen ball (dough ball)
Which are more effective at pollinating alfalfa?
alfalfa and alkaline bee
what type of soil does alkali bee like
alkaline soil (non-veggie)
which are the most effective orchard bees?
what is special about manaka honey
which honey is used as an antibacterial with medicinal properties
which honey does not granullate
what are teh two expensive honeys
sourwood and basswood
what is characterisitc about buckwheat honey
expensive, summer growth, black, strong after taste
what two honeys have a light taste and no linger after taste?
alfalafa adn clover
what can be seed about the taste of legume plants honey
no after taste
describe colors of three: buckwheat, alfalfa, clover
dark, light, light
what two honeys granualte very easily
goldenrod and aster
Magic temperature is what?
at 55-65 degrees honey is likely to what
at 80-90 degrees honey is likely to what
at freezing honey is likely to what
if honey crystalizes to what temp should you heat it to
what does wildflower mean
random mixing from different pollination plants
honey is ____ as sweet as sugar
a gallon of honey weighs ___
how many hives does a hobbiest, sideliner, or commerical beekeeper have
1-10, 10-50, greater than 50
beekeepers with 1-10 hives are known as
beekeepers with 10-50 hives are known as
beekeepers with 50 hives are known as
10 frames full of honey = ____ lbs of honey if its a full sized box
how many boxes should you get for hive
why do you need at least two boxes
how much does a hive cost
TF: each box needs to have a honey super
where does the queen excluder go
lower of two boxe
what is the point of hte queen excluder
keep her from honey frames, prevents wax moth from coming
what can be used as foundation
comb, wire, plastic (wire adn plastic bw wax to make stronger)
what cehmical does he recommend you get
what does fumidilB treat
TF your hive can be free of proteozen spiridium
proteozen spiridium treated with what
how much can proteozen spiridum dec yield?
what are the things you need to start bee keeping
2 hives, 2 boxes, frames, queen exclude, honey super, foundation, smoker, veil, hat, gloves, artificial feed, fumidlB
what are the two types of artificial feed
sugar water and pollen/pollen-substitute
why is a poll/pollen-substitute artificial feed not recommended
what is a feed substitute from a soy bean flower
how do you prepare beltsville artificial feed
mix with honey and laid on top of brood combs
where do you lay beltsville
top of brood combs
What are the three type of feeders?
frame feeders adn top feeder and side mason jar feeder
wehre does the top feeder go
on top of brood
where does the mason jar feeder go
what type of bees do the feeders go around
What are the six reasons you want to feed bees?
1. encourage bees for spring build up
2. extracted honey from bees, because dry in prep fall and winter storage
3. Disease problem, fumidilB feed only through sugar water
4. Starvation period March-May
5. Installing packaged bees
6. Re-queen colony in July-Oct, success of re-queening is increases
What are the feed rations
Spring Build Up 1 h20: 1 sugar
Fall Feed/Starvation/Medication 2 h20: 1 sugar
Stimulate New Colony 1 h20 : 2 sugar
For the site of the beehive you want it to NOT face the ____ winds.
For the site of the beehive you want it to face the _____ winds
east or south
When setting up the hives they are usually arranged in...
What are two ways that driting can be decreased when it comes to hives
putting hives in horse shoe form and
painting the hives
What does putting the hives in a horse shoe form reduce drifting
bc always drift to the end box, there really isnt an end box like there would be in a line formation
Why does painting the hives reduce the amount of drifting
bees can identify their own colony
where does the queen cage go
middle of the frame
How would you introduce a new queen and the process that must be completed?
1. put queen cage in middle of frame
2. dump other bees on top
3. leave for a week: wait!
4. Wait till she lays an egg
5. laying egg--> encourages food production
6. Queen eats, becomes fat
7. now fat cant fly (cant upscond--stays put)
8. place bucket sugar water feed with fumidilB
When putting in new queen, you are suppose to wait a week for her to do what?
lay an egg
when adding queen, after she has layed an egg, what does this encourage
after adding new queen what prevents her from upsconding
getting fat from feeding
What are the four ways to purchase bees?
1. buy a UNIT: PACKAGE of Bees
2. Buy a NUC
3. FREE bees
4. Someone elses colony
What do you get when you purchase a package of bees
queen + workers + food source (for a week)
When you purchase a package of bees, how long of a supply do they give you for the food source?
Which type of purchasing bee method is known as "swarm in a box"
buying a unit/ packaged bees
Which type of colony is the whole colony in a box
buying a unit/ packaged bees
what is a common disease found in packaged bees?
what guarantee do they provide when buying a unit/ packaged bees
queen is mated
how many bees per pound buying a unit/ packaged bees
3500 bees/ lb
how many lbs is a package when buying a unit/ packaged bees
What are the advantages to buying a unit/ packaged bees
easy to start up new colony
disease and mite free
company does most of the effort
hardly any brood diseases
TF When buying a unit/ packaged bees they are usually disease/mite free
in what method for purchasing bees does the company have most effort
buying a unit/ packaged bees
TF when buying a unit/ packaged bees, there are many brood diseases?
Which purchasing bee method is like buying a miniature colony
what do you get in a nuc
brood, eggs, queen, workers, honey, 3 frames
TF all three stages of bee life are present in buying a unit/ packaged bees
TF all three stages of bee life are present in buying a nuc
Who sells nucs?
which is easier to transport unit/ packaged bees or nuc
unit/ packaged bees
which is more expensive unit/ packaged bees or nuc
TF when buying a nuc, there is possibility of lots of brood diseases?
which has more shipping strain on bees unit/ packaged bees or nuc
unit/ packaged bees
TF a nuc has more shipping strain on bees unit/ packaged bees
The feed in a nuc has > or < sugar than packaged
TF since a nuc comes from an local beekeeper they are likey to give you old frames, old queens, and drone cells
What advantage is there to a nuc compared to packaged in regards to needing help
nuc--local beekeeper easy to to contact
What disadvantages are there are there for a nuc compared to package
dont transport as easily
can have brood diseases
little sugar in feed
What advantages are there are there for a nuc compared to package
nuc has light honey load
not as much shipping stress
deal with problems easier bc local beekeeper
TF When you purchase unit/packaged bees you can get honey that year
TF When you purchase nuc bees you can get honey that year
What are the disadvantages to getting free bees method
dont know queen genetics
swarm bee queen could be superseded
What are the 6 reasons that a colony can fail?
1. queen has high level Nosema disease
2. queen is poorly/un- matted
3. ball the queen
4. getting bees past june (need to feed lots of sugar water in july)
5. Rains, need to feed sugar water
6. just do, they just upscond sucks
what does ball the queen mean
if you let queen out too quickly from queen cage when putting her in, or if the colony doesnt get her smell quickly, they will sting her to death (40 bees)
what are the two reasons that ball the queen occurs
-out of queen cage too quickly
-queens smell deosnt spread fast enough
which sugar water ratio would you use for spring buildup
which sugar water ratio would you use for getting just a good start in colony
what time of year do you check if you need to feed the bees for build up
how much honey does MD bees need for spring buildup
which sugar water ratio would you use for stimulating a new colony
which sugar water ratio would you use for medicine
which sugar water ratio would you use for feeding brood
TF more often you replace queen you dec chance of swarming
what does a pepper box pattern look like
some open cells
what Percentage of pattern is not capped in pepper box pattern
What does pepper box pattern indicate
queen needs to be replaced
what does a good frame pattern look like
what does pepper box pattern occur from (2)
failing queen or disease killing brood
for a pepper box pattern, if its from a failing queen then she may be laying in the defective cells 2 things
defective eggs or drones
TF laying drones indicates that queen needs to be replaced
TF laying drones can lead to pepper box pattern
generally how often should you replace queen
what are the 8 conditions for accepting a new queen
1. strong colonies more reluctant to accept new queen
2. nasty bees less likely
3. older bees less likely
4. colony to be requeened must first be dequeened
5. queen in colony must be in egg laying conditions
6. less risk if queen added with workers
7. drone laying queen can be replaced when there is a strong colony
8. better nectar flow easier to introduce queen
what is the most important condition that must be meet for the acceptance of new queen
colony to be requeened must first be dequeened
TF a virgin queen is preferred when introducing a new queen
TF (explain) If you have a weak colony should you requeen
false; add to strong colony
TF strong colony is more likely to accept a new queen
TF nasty bees are more likely to accept new queen
TF old bees are less likely to accept new queen
TF you can requeen a colony without first dequeening
TF New queen doesnt have to be in egg laying conditions
By adding ____ with the new queen can dec risk of not accepting her
TF you can replace a queen easily if the old queen in a strong colony is laying drones
TF better nectar flow --> easier to introduce new queen
What is the best method to combine colonies
when is the worst time to introduce new queen
when is the easiest time to introduce new queen
fall (or is it the worst time?)
why is it fall easiest time of year to introduce new queen
how can you make it easy to find the queen
mark her with color of the year
TF you should have wings of queen clipped
how can having the wings of the queen clipped lead to swarming
workers dont acceptor bc is defective
where is the queen usually found in hive (2)
with brood, middle of frame
who cannot get through queen excluder
queen and drones
TF a laying queen can fly off (abscond)
why cant a laying queen fly off
TF queen likes the light
if you were to do a colony split when would you do it
after spring honey flow
How do you make a split?
take a strong colony and split in half, one half of it gets either a new queen added to it (or colony picks new queen) and other half keeps old queen
What is the indirect method of preparing a queen to be introduced to colony?
Put queen cage in middle of brood area, let stay for few days, let WB eat through candy plug, WB regurgitate candy plug sugar to feed queen
Where do you put the queen cage in the indirect method of preparing a queen to be introduced to colony?
middle of brood area
what is the candy plug found in the indirect method of preparing a queen to be introduced to colony?
What is the crystallized fructose in the indirect method of preparing a queen to be introduced to colony called
what two physical structures are involved in the indirect method of preparing a queen to be introduced to colony?
candy plug and queen cage
how is the queen fed in the indirect method of preparing a queen to be introduced to colony?
WB eat candy plug and regurgitate to queen
What is the direct method of preparing a queen to be introduced to colony?
dip queen in honey, WB lick honey off, queen odor spread in process
What two things can you do to increase queen odor smell to spread in the direct method of preparing a queen to be introduced to colony?
lots of smoke, great confusion causing time for queen to walk around and spread odor
news paper method
how does using a lot of smoke play into the direct method of preparing a queen to be introduced to colony?
allows time for queen to walk around and spread odor, causes confusion in colony
how many frames are in a nuc
How do you use the newspaper method in introducing a new queen to a colony
Nuc box goes on top with newspaper in between colony and nuc box, top box has queen, bottom box is just the colony without a queen, eventually combined as the bees eat through the news paper
what is the general process of newspaper method
weak colony box goes on top of news paper that is on top of a strong colony box, eat through newspaper and odors mix
What are the 7 Reasons for Absconding
3. Wax Moth
6. Excessive disturbance by Beekeeper
7. Excessive disturbance by animals
Describe the progression of brood and cluser throughout the year starting from right now.
Right now: cluser bottom box, winter cluster moves to top box bc top box filled with honey and eating through it, Spring: cluster found in top box, Summer: both boxes
right now where is the cluster found
right now where is the honey found
winter where is the cluster found
moving towards top box
spring where is cluster found
summer where is cluster found
Why do reverses work (based on queen)
queen moves up easier than down
what tiem of year do you do manipulations
what are the types of manipulations you do in march and april
reverses, splits, switching frames
how many weeks before honey flow do you do reverses
why do you do reverses?
increase population rapidly
When is it best to add boxes? Why?
before honey flow bc could draw up honey comb foundation
Why do you need to check your colonies before mid-March
bees could be starting if low on honey, you need to add 1:1 sugar/water to stimulate them
when do you do first inspection
Last week February, March, before mid-March
What if you find that bees are not doing well in first inspection
give 1:1 sugar water ratio
what are the two objectives of mangement activies throughout the ear
-max honey product
What do you need to do if you find that before the honey flow the population was not high enough and the reverses you performed tdidnt work
what ratio is considered to be an articial stimulation
1:1 by volume
when you do artificial stimulation what do bees think is happening and how does it effect queen
makes bee think high nectar flow, so inc in queens laying, inc in population
TF bees make more honey in 80000 beehive than 2x 40000 beehives
after first inspection how often should you check
every 10 days
how do you control bees desire to swarm?
artificial flow stimulation
how does a reverse work?
bottom box moved to top box, bc bottom box is empty cells so queen can move up and lay eggs
what month do you give bees artificial stimuation
What month do you combine weak colonies
TF the month of April is before honey flow
When do you add suppers
spring build up--April
What month is the nectar flow
TF the nectar flow is the same thing as honey flow
TF nectar flow before honey flow
what is important about month of May
What time of year is the building up for honey flow?
What is the rule about the honey-brood line?
Never allow honey line to reach brood line during period before honey flow because could swarm
what is suppering
adding more boxes to allow for more room, place bottom box on top
list order arranged (bottom to top) queen exluder, foundation boxes, suppers
foundation boxes queen excluder suppers
what is the purpose of the queen excluder being between suppers and foundation boxes
prevents honey line from meeting brood line--> prevents swarming
how full should a box get before you add new supper
when do you put new suppers on
what does new wax being made indicate, in what month too?
indicates honey flow, may
Two ways to insert a new supper
1. take bottom supper and place on top (bottom suppering)
2. take new supper and add on top (top suppering)
what is "batting the supper"
put some ofdrawn comb from frames taht are partially filled iwth honey from bottom 3/4 filled supper, into a new supper that you want to add to the top to encourage bee movement upwards to top new supper
why do you not want queen in honey boxes?
she may lay brood there, and that leaves residues that attract the wax moth
TF queens are less likely to lay in shallow drones
TF queens more likely to lay in foundation
What should the first supper added on have
TF you can get bees to move upward with just plain drawn comb or drawn comb with honey
TF you supper after the honey flow
what month do you supper
what is top suppering
wait till box or previous supper is 3/4 full and add on new box directly on top
what is bottom supper
take bottom box that is now on top till it is 3/4 full
which is more efficient bottom or top suppering?
When do you want to start combinding boxes
first week of june
what do you want to do in first week of june
When can you no longer add new boxes
first week of June
what do you do in mid June
take suppers off and harvest honey
What are the ways to harvest honey
-brush them off
what chemical do you use with a fume board
Bee-Go or almond extract
what other chemical can you use on a fume board beside Bee Go
TF bees are attracted to smell of almond extract
What color should the fume board be
What board is the fume board typically
outer hive cover
what can you attach onto fume board to hold chemical
where do you place the fume board
ontop of summer
why do you place fume board on top of supper
to have sun heat up the board
what is required for fume board extraction
Explain how fume board works
black board (outer hive cover), a towel attached with chemical (bee go or almond extract), place on top off supper, sun heats it up, spreads fumes, bees leave
what role does the sun play in fume boards
heats up board, spreads fumes
what method of extraction is using a fume board
what is the limiting factor of fume board
what does bee go smell like
whats another name for fume board
what are three disadvantages to using a fume board
-can cause all bees to leave on hot day
What are the rules for suppering
-keep queen out of suppers
-keep shallow supper
-stagger boxes to increase movement
-8-9 frames only (dont fill)
-bait the supper with 1/2 frames of uncapped honey comb
-always use new comb for supper
-only use supper for honey production
-remove boxes in june
how do you keep queen out of suppers
TF you should keep shallow vs deep suppers
TF you can use old combs for supper
TF you can use suppers for queen laying
TF suppers should only be used for honey production
what month do you remove suppers
what two chemicals are used for fume board
benza aldehyde (almond extract)
buteric anhydride (buteric acid)-vomit smell
what is benza aldehyde
when should you check for robbing
after honey flow
what indicates possibly robbing
what three ways do you do honey extraction
how should you store boxes (2 things)
sealed in plastic bags
what two ways do you do honey extraction
what two things can you to strain honey
How can you help honey settle faster
heat honey 115-120
what temperature should you increase honey too help it settle
how does heating the honey for settling tank allow for better extraction
lowers viscosity so easier flow
why do you heat honey in extraction
Describes DICE method
heat honey during extraction, keep at 50 degrees, add some seed crystals of honey, becomes creamy
what temperature do you want to store honey
why do you want to store honey below 70
reduce natural recrystalization
what two things can happen if you keep untreated honey at 50-70
ferments and crystalizes
whawt happens if you store honey with greater than >23% moisture
TF can freeze honey and wont crystalize
What do you do in summer generally
when is fall flow
why do you want to requeen in summer/before fall flow (3)
1. colonies small
2. young queen going into next year less likely swarm
3. cheap queen
In summer you can decide to do what if you have a strong colony? what can you do if weak boxes?
strong--> split and requeen
What do you do in august-september
feeding for fall (2:1)
what ratio do you fed in august-sept? Why?
2:1; so bees make it to winter
TF you should you add what in aug-sept to prevent diareah in winter
what are entrance reducers
small notch that adjust from big to small to keep rodent control
explain mouse and bee relation
mouse eat pollen and winter stores
bees dont do anything bc clustered
what temperature can bees survive at in winter in a cluster
explain how bees get water in cluster during winter
bees breathing in cluster, warm wet air raise to top, water condenses and dripping of water back down, and bees drink it
How much honey do you need in the north to sustain bees in winter
How much honey do you need in Maryland to sustain bees in winter
how much does two hive bodies with honey, bees, and boxes weigh
each deep frame filled with honey weighs how much
What is the temp at which the bees cluster for winter
TF cluser moves in winter
yes, moves over honey
what percentage of colony dies during winter
What is the temperature inside the cluser
what the temperature in side the innermost in the cluster with brood
what is the lowest temperature is it outside the cluster
if you need to move bees over the winter what is the problem, how do you solve it
bees remember hive location, need to move at least a mile away
why do you not want bees to face ____ because of winter winds
north or northwest
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