25 terms

NASM PES: Chapter 4: flexibility

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arthrokinematic dysfunction
the biomechanics dysfunction in two articular partners that lead to abnormal joint movement (arthrokinematics) and proprioception
endomysium
the innermost fascial layer that encases individual muscle fibers
perimysium
the sheath that binds groups of muscle fibers into fasciculi
epimysium
the outermost layer of a muscle fiber
cumulative injury cycle
a process by whereby an injury will induce inflammation, muscle spasm, adhesions, altered neuromuscular control, and muscle imbalances.
muscle spindles
the major sensory organs of the muscle that are sensitive to change in length and rate of length change
gto
mechanoreceptors located within the musculotendinous junction that are sensitive to tension and rate of tension change
joint mech
mechanoreceptors located in joints throughout the fibrous capsule and ligaments that respond to joint position, movement, and pressure changes.
atrophy
the loss in muscle fiber size
sarcopenia
a decrease in muscle fiber numbers
elasticity
the springlike behavior of connective tissue that enables the tissue to return to its original shape or size when forces are removed
Davis's Law
soft tissue models along the lines of stress
Wolff's Law
bone in a healthy person or animal will adapt to the loads it is placed under.
flexibility
the normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allows full range of motion of a joint and optimum neuromuscular efficiency throughout all functional movements
all or none principle
when a muscle fiber is stilted to contract, the entire fiber contracts completely.
myotatic stretch reflex
when a muscle is stretched very quickly, (the muscle spindle contracts, which in turn stimulates the primary afferent fibers that causes the extrafusal fibers to fire, and tension increases in the muscle)
corrective flex
stretching techniques designed to correct common postural dysfunctions, muscle imbalances, and joint dysfunctions
active flex
stretching techniques designed to improve soft tissue extensibility in all planes of motion by employing the neurophysiological principle of reciprocal inhibition
functional flex
stretching techniques designed to improve multi planar soft tissue extensibility and prove optimum neuromuscular control throughout that full range of motion, while performing functional movements that utilize the body's muscles to control the speed, direction, and intensity of the stretch
rate coding
the rate at which any individual nerve fiber transmits impulses per unit of time
recruitment
an impulse transmitted sim. over an increasing number of nerve fibers, pulling in increasingly more muscle fibers for the task
elasticity
the spring- lie behavior of connective tissue that enables the tissue to return to its original shape or size when forces are removed
viscoelasticity
the fluid- like property of connective tissue that allows slow deformation with an imperfect recovery after the deforming forces are removed
plasticity
the residual or permanent change in connective tissue length due to tissue elongation
ari
the concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inhibits its functional antagonist. ex- when a tight psoas decreases the neural drive to the gluteus maximums