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HA Final Exam
edited vocab list for HA Final Kathaleen Bloom
Terms in this set (100)
a defect of melanin production that results in little or no color (pigments) in the skin, hair or eyes
a lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat; refusal to eat; can be physical or psychological
an absence of spontaneous respiration; absence of breathing
an abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of a fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes; fluid accumulates in the peritoneal cavity between the organs and abdominal wall
an abnormal condition in which parallel light rays cannot be focused clearly in a point on the retina because the spheric curve of the cornea or lens is not equal in all meridians; often results in blurry vision, headaches, and eyestrain
a wasting or decrease in size or physiologic activity of a part of the body because of disease or other influences
a reflex used to determine adequacy of the higher (central) nervous system. this reflex is obtained by stimulating the outside of the sole of the foot- a positive test is evidenced by an extension of the big toe while fanning the other toes (vs the normal Plantar reflex of curled toes)
a rounded, bulging chest with abnormal increase in the anteroposterior diameter (1:1 vs the normal 2:1 chest width:depth ratio), showing little movement on respiration; seen in emphysema, kyphosis, and chronic airflow limitation.
abnormally slow heartbeat, under 60 beats/min
slow breathing, less than 12 breaths/min
abnormal voice sounds heard over the lung, with the voice too clear and high-pitched, indicating solidification: nurse has patient say "99" or "1-to-1" (vibrating sounds) while holding diaphragm over lung fields; a positive sign for consolidation is an increase in intensity and clarity of the vocal resonance that may result from an increase in the lung tissue density, such as in pneumonia
most commonly caused by abnormal narrowing of an artery; an abnormal blowing or swishing sound or murmur heard while auscultating an artery or vascular channel; results from blood flowing through a narrow or partially occluded artery. usually of low frequency and are heard best with the bell of a stethoscope; "vascular murmur"; turbulence of flow
pertaining to the long axis of the body, or the relationship between the head and the base of the spine; growth occurs in this direction, from head-to-toe
dark skin, sun exposed; "sun spots"; A patchy brown or dark brown skin discoloration that usually occurs on a woman's face and may result from hormonal changes, as in pregnancy
the circular movement of a limb or of the eye; ex. extending the arm and moving it around in a small circle away from the body
an abnormal pattern of neuromuscular activity, characterized by rapidly alternating involuntary muscular contraction and relaxation in rapid succession; a continuous rhythmic reflex tremor initiated by the spinal cord below an area of spinal cord injury, set in motion by reflex testing (dorsiflex ankle- 4-5 );
Rate the reflex with the following scale:
4+ Very brisk, hyperreflexive,
3+ Brisker or more reflexive than normally.
1+ Low normal, diminished, needs reinforcement
0 No response
(development) acquisition of intellectual skills that encompass behaviors such as thinking, understanding, and evaluating; incorporating life experiences into problem-solving or decision-making
(pink eye) Inflammation of the conjunctiva, caused by bacterial or viral infection, allergy, or environmental factors
a coarse, crackling sensation palpable over the skin surface; a sound or feel that resembles the crackling noise heard when rubbing hair between the fingers or throwing salt on an open fire; ex. rubbing of bone fragments, air in superficial tissues, or crackles of a consolidated area of the lung in pneumonia.
Costovertebral Angle Tenderness- CVAT
tenderness to percussion is a common finding in pyelonephritis and other infections of the kidney and adjacent structures; angle between vertebral column and ribs; kidneys are paired retroperitoneal structures that are normally located between the transverse processes of T12-L3 vertebrae, with the left kidney typically somewhat more superior in position than the right, near 12th rib
the appearance of a blue or purple coloration if the skin or mucous membranes; caused by a decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin; reduced blood oxygen caused by poor circulation, or heart/lung problems
a physical or cognitive skill that a person must accomplish during a particular age period (critical periods) to continue normal development; Erikson's stages of development require a person to complete a desired task to achieve the outcome of stage completion
the time period when the heart is in a state of relaxation and dilatation; heart is refilling with blood
the movement which decreases the angle between the dorsum (superior surface) of the foot and the leg; flexing the ankle to push the toes toward the head
difficult breathing; a distressful subjective sensation of uncomfortable breathing
painful, difficult, burning urination
observable swelling from fluid accumulation in body tissues
test for consolidation, normal finding sounds like "eeee" , abnormal change in the voice sound to "aaaaahy"; ex. patient with pleural effusion or pneumonia as heard on auscultation
nose bleed; hemorrhage from the nose, usually due to rupture of small vessels overlying the anterior part of the cartilaginous nasal septum
Redness of the skin caused by dilatation and congestion (excess blood) of the more superficial capillaries, often a sign of inflammation or infection
a turning outward of the foot; sole moves laterally (so that the lateral malleolus moves superior to medial malleolus)
any superficial loss of substance, as that produced on the skin by scratching; an abrasion
a "straightening" movement allowed by certain joints of the skeleton that increases the angle between two adjoining bones
a localized, uncoordinated, uncontrollable twitching of a single muscle group innervated by a single motor nerve fiber or filament that may be palpated and seen under the skin; consisting of involuntary contractions or twitchings of groups of muscle fibers; these are twitches in muscle (actually, contraction of a single motor unit, i.e., all of the muscle fibers attached to a single motor neuron). These can be felt and often seen. They are random and involuntary occurrences and do not result in movement of a joint; like calf twitches
gas or air in the gastrointestinal tract; gas or air expelled through the anus
a movement allowed by certain joints of the skeleton that decreases the angle between two adjoining bones
a palpable vibration on the body; is a result of lung consolidation and can be palpated over the affected lung fields while patient speaks
the manner or style of walking, including rhythm, cadence, and speed
a deformity in which the legs are curved inward at the knee so that the knees are close together and strike each other as the person walks, and the ankles are widely separated;knock-kneed
a deformity in which one or both legs are bent outward at the knee; bowlegged
ability to feel writing on the skin (outline a letter on someone's skin)
(aka lifts) these are forceful cardiac contractions that cause a slight to vigorous movement of sternum and ribs; with maximum abdominal muscle input, imposed by the poor respiratory gas exchange in this disease.
a localized collection of blood in a tissue/organ caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel; a collection of extravasated blood trapped in the tissues of the skin or in an organ
abnormal enlargement of the liver
the expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lung
the excessive hairiness on women in those parts of the body where terminal hair does not normally occur or is usually minimal; excessive hair growth
extreme sensitivity to pain; greater-than-normal sensitivity to pain that may result from a painful stimulus or a lowered pain threshold
high blood pressure-
normal blood pressure: less than 120/80 mm Hg
pre-hypertension: 120-129/80-89 mm Hg
Stage 1 hypertension: 140-159/90-99 mm Hg
Stage 2 hypertension: > or = to: 160-179/100-109 mm Hg
movement at a joint to a position beyond the joint's normal maximum extension; beyond normal range of movement
abnormally decreased sensitivity to stimuli, particularly to touch; a decrease in sensation in response to stimulation of the sensory nerves or body organs or areas they innervate;
low blood pressure; term usually used only when blood pressure has fallen so far that enough blood can no longer reach the brain, causing dizziness and fainting
turning of the foot inward (sole of foot turns medially, you can see the bottom of your foot, soles face one another)
exhibited by a yellow color indicating rising amount of bilirubin in the blood;a person's skin and the whites of the eyes are discolored yellow due to an increased level of bile pigments in the blood resulting from liver disease; may be normal for a couple days after birth in newborns
irregular-shaped, elevated, progressively enlarging scar; looks smooth, rubbery, "clawlike"; aised formation of fibrous scar tissue caused by excessive tissue repair in response to trauma or incision; has a higher incidence among African Americans
inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the larynx; accompanied by edema of the vocal cords with hoarseness or loss of voice
(or heaves) these are forceful cardiac contractions that cause a slight to vigorous movement of sternum and ribs; a left parasternal heave (an abnormal finding) will lift the heel of your hand with each heart beat. This would suggest right ventricular hypertrophy!
a gentle blowing, fluttering, or humming sound; susceptible to auscultation. Types include systolic, diastolic, and continuous; A bruit is generally a sound made by a non-cardiac vessel, while a this is made by abnormal flow through a cardiac valve (either accelerated by a narrowing, or backflowing through an incompetent valve).
a round symmetrical skull that is appropriately related to body size; normal sized head
involuntary, rhythmic movements of the eyes; twitch, tested for in whisker test; oscillating motions of the eyes
the relation between the thumb and the other digits of the hand for the purpose of grasping objects between the thumb and fingers
difficulty breathing when supine; discomfort in breathing that is relieved by sitting or standing in an erect position.
a pounding or racing of the heart; patient may actually feel the
perceptible forcible pulsation of the heart, usually with an increase in frequency or force, with or without irregularity in rhythm; rapid, forceful, throbbing, or fluttering heartbeat.
swelling of the optic disc, visible on ophthalmoscopic examination of the fundus of the eye, caused by increase in intracranial pressure
when the red-pink tones from the oxygenated hemoglobin in the blood are lost, the skin takes on the color of connective tissue (collagen), which is mostly white
something you can feel (i.e., solid, elevated, circumscribed, less than 1 cm diameter) caused by superficial thickening in the epidermis; a small, solid, usually inflammatory elevation of the skin that does not contain pus; small/hard
the coordinated, rhythmic serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract, bile through the bile duct, and urine through the ureters
Pupils, Equal, Round, Reactive to Light and Accommodation
inflammation or infection of the pharynx, usually causing a sore throat; accompanied by dryness/pain
a toe-down motion of the foot at the ankle; normal reflex where the toes curl (opposite of Babinski Reflex)
a congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of more than the normal number of fingers or toes; the presence of more than five digits on a hand or foot.
the part of the front of the chest wall that overlays the heart and the epigastrium; the part of the body comprising of the epigastrium and anterior surface of the lower thorax
growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities (torso grows before arms, sit up before crawl)
an abnormal condition of one or both upper eyelids in which the eyelid droops because of a congenital or acquired weakness of the levator/palepebral muscle or paralysis of the third cranial nerve
vesicles/bullae that become filled with pus; raised blister; small inflamed skin swelling that is filled with pus; a pimple.
pain felt at a site different from that of an injured or diseased organ or body part
bubbling, a coarse rattling sound somewhat like snoring, usually caused by secretion in a bronchial tube; an abnormal sound heard on auscultation of an airway obstructed by thick secretions, muscular spasm, neoplasm, or external pressure. Cleared with coughing. A wheeze.
a hyperexcitation of neurons in the brain leading to abnormal electric activity that causes a sudden, violent involuntary series of contractions of a group of muscles; a paroxysmal episode, caused by abnormal electrical conduction in the brain, resulting in the abrupt onset of transient neurologic symptoms such as involuntary muscle movements, sensory disturbances and altered consciousness
lateral curvature of the spine, a common abnormality of childhood, especially in females
tests perception and understanding the form and nature of objects by the sense of touch; being able to tell that one is holding a paperclip; both hands tested at the same time with different objects
an abnormal ocular condition in which the visual axes of the eyes are not directed at the same point (stab in different places because of weakened muscles)
a streak or a linear scar that often results from rapidly developing tension in the skin
a high-pitched inspiratory crowing sound heard without the stethoscope, occurring with upper airway obstruction; calls for emergency; blockage of trachea
a brief lapse in consciousness caused by transient cerebral hypoxia "fainting"
a congenital anomaly characterized by the fusion of the fingers or toes; webbing
the contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially of the ventricles; blood is exiting the heart
a heart rate that exceeds the normal range. A heart rate over 100 bpm; excessively fast heartbeat
the vibration accompanying a cardiac or vascular murmur, detectible on palpation; palpable vibration caused by turbulent blood flow and is always pathological. Feel for it at the apex, the upper part of the precordium and in the sternal notch. The common casue is aortic stenosis.
local and habitual spasmodic motion of particular muscles especially of the face; twitching; small; stereotyped and repeat within the same muscle groups
a subjective noise sensation, often described as ringing, heard in one or both ears
elasticity of skin; tenting
hives; raised, often itchy, red welts on the surface of the skin; usually an allergic reaction to food or medicine; rash; hives
a small circumscribed elevation of the epidermis containing a serous fluid; less than 0.5 cm (greater is a Bulla)
appearance on otherwise healthy skin of non-pigmented; white patches of varied sizes noticed on darker skinned individuals a loss of brown color (pigment) from areas of skin, resulting in irregular white patches that feel like normal skin. FLAT not raised
a sensation of instability, giddiness, loss of equilibrium, or rotation, caused by a disturbance in the semicircular canal of the inner ear or the vestibular nuclei of the brainstem; sensation that the objects in the room are spinning
localized edema in the epidermis that may be red or pale; superficial, raised, transient, and erythematous; the typical lesion of urticaria
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