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Chapter One Ap World History- First People
Terms in this set (62)
Bi Austronesian migrations
The last phase of the great human migration that established a human presence in every habitable
region of the earth. Austronesian speaking people settled the Pacific islands and Madagascar in a series of seaborne migrations that began around 3,500 years ago. People making this journey had a deliberate intention to colonize new lands. Upon the century of arrival, chiefdoms were created and there was a quick extinction of many species of animals.
Brotherhood of the Tomol
A prestigious craft guild that monopolized the building and ownership of large oceangoing canoes,
or tomols,among the Chumash people(located in what is now S. Cali).
Paleolithic culture of southern California that survived until the modern era. More civilized people since they had leaders, a trading system, and buildings of residency
The earliest widespread and distinctive culture of North America; named from the Clovis point, a particular
kind of projectile point
A complex worldview of Australia's Aboriginal people that held that current humans live in a vibration or echo of
ancestral happenings; recounts the beginning of things.
A recently discovered hominid species of Indonesia
A people of northern Tanzania, almost the last surviving Paleolithic society; hunting and gathering people.
Last Ice Age
The Last Ice Age was at it's peak around 20,000 years ago. Came to an end between 16,000 and 10,000 years ago; it created a process of global warming, and the world got warmer and wetter.
How did the Last Ice Age change the Paleolithic peoples lives?
After the Last Ice Age, plants and animals unable to survive in the last ice age climate now flourished and increased their range, providing a much richer and more diverse environment for many human societies. More hunting and gathering groups stayed in one area now and human populations grew. But during the Ice Age Homo Sapiens migrated across the planet looking for warmer areas.
A settled Paleolithic culture of a prehistoric Japan, characterized by seaside villages and the creation of the world's first pottery, along w/dugout canoes,paddles,bowls,bows, and tool handles, all made from wood.
Why did Marshall Sahlins describe the Paleolithic societies as the "Original Affluent Society?"
The Paleolithic people were not affluent because they had so much but because they wanted/needed little.
A Paleolithic people still living on the Northern fringe of the Kalahari desert in Southern Africa.
In San culture, a nightlong ritual held to activate a human being's inner spiritual potency (which is n/um) to counteract the evil spirits/gods; this practice was also common to the Khoisan people.
In many early societies, a person was believed to have the ability to act as a bridge between living humans and
supernatural forces, often by means of trances induced by psychoactive drugs
Paleolithic carvings of the female form, often with exaggerated breasts, buttocks, hips, and stomachs, which may have had religious significance or might be used for trade. Figurines were made to accentuate fertility (childbearing hips) and show how important women were in early times.
Why were hunting and gathering groups so small?
Hunting and gathering cannot support a lot of people; doesn't provide surplus. Also the birth rate is very low because nobody has time to raise kids when your nomads; always on the run.
3.5,000 years ago
Sea level sunk from Ice Age and let people be able to walk through.
Migration from Africa
100,000-60,000 yrs. ago Africa to E. Asia to Australia to Europe to Americas to Pacific Islands and Madagascar to New Zealand.
10,000 yrs. ago; beginning of farming, the domestication of animals, the development of crafts such as pottery and weaving, and the making of polished stone tools.
250,000-10,000 yrs. ago
10,000-200 yrs. ago
Modern Industrial era
After 25,000 yrs. ago all over the Afro-Eurasian world were miniature stone tools like: smaller more refined spear points, arrowheads, knives; they were all struck from larger cores.
An archaeological site at the top of a mountain ridge in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. This is one of the most stunning achievements of the sedentary Paleolithic people. Experts believe that the site was used for ceremonial practices.
Migration to Americas
(30,000 -15,000 yrs. ago) E. Siberia to America through the Bering Strait; human activity in S. Chile by 12,500 yrs ago.
Earliest Homo Sapiens in Africa
250,000-200,000 yrs. ago; they lived exclusively in Africa for 150,000 yrs
Migration to E Asia
70,000 yrs. ago
Migration to Australia
60,000-40,000 yrs ago from Indonesia (first use of boats)
Migration to Europe
45,000 yrs. ago
How did climate change affect the Paleolithic societies?
Climate change combined with hunting pushed the larger species into extinction; this added pressure to the Paleolithic people who had depended on it and forced them to look for new food sources. People wanted more food to eat, so this started agriculture.
Origin of Agriculture
12,000 B.C.E, SouthWest Asia, Fertile Crescent
Diffusion/Migration of Agriculture/Language
From SW Asia to Europe, Central Asia, Egypt, and North Africa between 6,500-4,000 B.C.E
Globalization of Agriculture
Reduced gathering and hunting peoples to a small/dwindling minority of humankind. Did not spread everywhere like: New Guinea, Australia, West Coast of North America, arctic regions, Sw Africa; all of these regions remained steadfast to their hunting and gathering economy into the Modern era.
Why did some regions not switch to agriculture?
The regions knew about agriculture but resisted the practice: some because their region was unsuitable for agriculture, others lived in natural abundance and didn't feel the need for agriculture, some just wanted the freer life and to follow the lives of their ancestors.
Technological innovation from Agricultural Revolution
Pots/pottery for settled societies, weaving of textiles (7,000 yrs. ago), weaving (women probably were innovators), metallurgy (better weapons and tools), new storages, plows, hoes.
Secondary products of Agricultural revolution
4,000 B.C.E- New uses for domesticated animals: Milking animals, harvesting wool, enrichment of soil from manure, ride horses and camels, hitch various animals to plows and carts, sustenance from animals blood.
Origin of Wine making
5,400 B.C.E- In the mountains of present day Iran
Chinese wine-4,000 B.C.E
Why were societies so different from one another after the Agricultural Revolution?
Because of the differences in the natural environment, the encounter w/strangers, and sometimes deliberate choices made distinct results from other regions.
For the regions where domestication of plants was difficult because of the environment, people more heavily relied on their animals and became herders, pastoralists, or nomads. Regions like: Central Asia, Arabian Peninsula, Sahara, parts of E/S Africa. Relative equality of men and women, both were very important.
Agriculture effects on Social Equality
For several thousand years, agricultural villages and pastoral communities retained much of the social equality that had characterized Paleolithic life. Slowly, though, many of the resources released by the Agricultural Revolution accumulated in the hands of a few. Some people got lucky while others didn't.
Corn(maize), squash, beans, potato
Many important crops like today, including wheat, rice, and cereal grains (barley, wheat)
Agricultural Village Societies
Social equality, gender equality, no kings
Form of political organization with rule by a hereditary leader who held power over a collection of villages and towns. Less powerful than kingdoms and empires, chiefdoms were based on gift giving and commercial links.
The spreading and sharing of ideas leads to cultural evolution.
Was drank more often because water was not purified and could cause disease; important to change in social culture.
Agriculture affect on Human Life
Farming was hard work more work than hunting and gathering; there was deterioration in health- more tooth decay, malnutrition
Best plants to domesticate
Wheat, barley, rye; give you the most nutrition and they were in mass production.
Animal effects on Human Life
During Animal Husbandry the people stayed and lived near animals; disease followed from the animals like: smallpox, flu, measles, chicken pox, malaria, tuberculosis, rabies.
Agriculture effect on Popultation
6million 10,000 yrs. ago then shot up to about 50 million by 5,000 yrs. ago then 250 million by beginning of the Common Era
Belief in the equality of all people in political, economic, or social life.
Yam, sorghum, peanut
Camel, Pig, Horse, Cattle, Dog, Donkey, Goat, Sheep, Cattle
1st Crops domesticated
1st Domesticated animals
Goats, pigs, and cattle
Paleolithic society locations
Near the shore because most paleolithic societies preferred to hunt fish and plus a greater chance of not getting eaten.
Paleolithic main discovery's
Language, Fire, Rough stone tools
Neolithic main discovery's
Agriculture, tools w/polished stones, the plow
Widespread violence on first human societies
Arguments on distribution of the meat or laziness of a particular people generated conflict; also rivalries among men over women. 15% of deaths in the Paleolithic societies, was from violence at the hands of others.
Paleolithic people affects on the environment
Paleolithic people altered the natural environment substantially. They deliberately set fires to encourage the growth of particular plants; also humankind played a major role to the extinction of large animals.