Terms in this set (81)
The growth and development of creatures in-side their mothers' wombs; pregnancy
(Of an idea, plan, or theory) the evolution and development of it
E.G. Humans undergo 9 months of gestation.
E.G. The gestation of his book took a long time.
random; not discriminating or not restricted to a certain group; lacking discrimination or careful choice.
E.G. Gang-related violence is indiscriminate. It targets everyone, including children.
E.G. Indiscriminate friendship.
something that induces or encourages or stimulates.
E.G. A soporific or barbiturate that induces sleep.
E.G. No inducement could get the child to go to school.
E.G. They have used every inducement to get an interview from the celerity.
Lenient, humorist, tolerant, permissive
E.G. The indulgent parents spoiled their child.
the state of being inert; inactivity, disinclination to act or change; dormancy, quiescence.
cannot be extricated or disentangled.
E.G. Politics and economics are often inextricable.
E.G. America and China have an economically inextricable relationship.
of a conflict--deadly to both sides; mutually destructive.
E.G. internecine feuds.
E.G. The party suffered from internecine rivalries.
E.G. centuries of internecine wars left both countries weak and dismantled.
insert words into a text, especially to give a false impression; alter.
to add words or materials into a text or a conversation.
to intervene or come between two things or people as in "he tried to interpose himself between the fighting boxers."
to insert in a conversation: "allow me to interpose a brief comment."
the time during which there is vacancy in the government between two successive regimes as in the interregnum during the English civil war.
a gap in continually, hiatus, interlude.
E.G. the democratic regime proved to be a short-lived interregnum between the two dictatorships.
disperse among other tings: mix with.
E.G. in the movie The Bourne Ultimatum, plain-clothe agents were intersperse among uniformed policemen.
E.G. The oak trees were interspersed with pines.
Courage, Pluck, Endurance, Fortitude.
Think solid like metal
E.G. The decathlon tested the contestants' mettle
E.G. John has proven his mettle by winning the race
E.G. The questions they asked put john on his mettle to answer them (an idiom meaning to do one's best).
E.G. the recalcitrant colt put the cowboy in his mettle to control it.
Full of courage and fortitude; spirited.
E.G. the general is proud of his mettlesome soldiers.
E.G. she had to collect all of her strength to control the mettlesome horse.
To work against.
E.G. the child abuse cases militated against Michael Jackson's maintenance of his throne as the king of pop.
E.G. his antagonistic attitude towards his colleagues militates against his chances of getting a promotion
E.G. his vague expressions and recondite words militate against clarifying his points.
Think minatory or centaur.
E.G. the Stanger's minatory gestures alarmed the woman.
1. Speak euphemistically; pronounce affectedly and carefully for the sake of being polite.
2. To take tiny steps; tiptoe.
Think "mice" who are shy and cautious.
exact; precise; subtle.
E.G. as a politician, he drew a nice distinction between his personal opinions and the opinions of the majority of voters
1. The quality of being nice as in "we were taught the niceties of civilized behavior."
2. Subtlety, nuance, distinction as in "she was never interested in the niceties of greek and latin."
3. Accuracy or precision as in "it was a nice shot."
E.G. she moved to Los Angeles to enjoy the niceties of life.
E.G. the legal niceties of his case were of little interest to the condemned man
E.G. He knows all the niceties of diplomatic protocol
E.G. Taylor Swift prides herself on her nicety of enunciation.
1. a small decorative hole in the wall where an ornament can be placed.
2. A place or a position suitable for a person or thing
3. A niche market is a sub-category within a larger market that targets a very specific demographics. For instance, the market of shoes may have a niche market that focuses on selling shoes for specifically diabetic people who need shoes that make blood circulation easy.
E.G. John found his niche in the business world
E.G. Mary found her niche in politics.
E.G. They placed the statue in its niche.
befitting or meet of nobility; as required or expected of a noble person.
E.G. a strong sense of noblesse oblige made the billionaire donate half of his money to charity.
E.G. Inspired by his noblesse oblige, Mitt Romney built schools for orphans.
Stinky, foul, fetid, mephitic.
Think noisome-->nose-->bad smell.
E.G. Noisome swamp.
E.G. Noisome kitchen.
E.G. Noisome deals.
A Permanently frozen layer of subsoil
E.G. In Alaska, the permafrost precludes any possible gestation of trees.
The closing part of speech or discourse--typically designed to enthuse the audience by emphasizing the main ideas through a bombastic rhetoric and grandiloquent style.
E.G. "The culmination of a speech is in its peroration; of a poem in its envoi."--W.L. George.
1. (Of a young girl): lively, vivacious
2. Presumptuous, rude.
E.G. A pert girl who is a member of the cheerleading squad.
E.G. John likes the pert way she tilts her head.
E.G. A pert retort that irritated the teacher
E.G. John was pert to his boss, and his boss was unforgiving.
Centered on men or their point of view; dominated by men; the belief of the superiority of men over women.
E.G. A phallocentric society.
E.G. Not all cultures are phallocentric.
E.G. the critic described the novel as phallocentric.
1. A book that contains a list of drugs, their formulas, and other relevant information--typically published under the jurisdiction of the government.
2. A collection of drugs.
E.G. The pharmacist checked his pharmacopoeia to see if he had the drug that that patient requested.
E.G. John couldn't find Tylenol in his pharmacopoeia.
E.G. The young writer's preceptor is a famous novelist.
short summary; abstract, synopsis
E.G. The governor requested a précis of the report.
E.G. A précis of the novel
1. Adapted to grasp catch.
2. Capable of apprehension and understanding.
3. Greedy, avaricious.
E.G. Prehensile tails.
E.G. The octopus has prehensile tentacles.
E.G. The elephant has a prehensile trunk.
Predominance; majority of number.
E.G. There is a preponderance of science majors at A-State
E.G. By preponderance of evidence, America remains the preponderant global power of the 21st century.
To officially tell someone to do something
E.G. The student received the list of readings prescribed by the exam committee.
E.G. The regulations prescribe that all employees must pass a drug test.
E.G. The doctor prescribed medicine for his patient.
Redress 2ND SET OF TERMS
relief from wrong or injury; a compensation to redress a wrongdoing or injury; atonement; restitution; reparation.
E.G. The court ordered payment as redress for the injury he suffered from.
E.G. John sought redress for the infringement he suffered from.
the attempt to explain a complex phenomenon in simple terms; the attempt to simplify a complex phenomenon for the purpose of making it easier to understand by reducing it to a simplistic form.
E.G. rendering a person as a combination of chemicals is an example of reductionism.
E.G. Claiming that being gay is whom you sleep with is reductionist.
A dining hall.
E.G. The family has breakfast in the refectory.
to deflect light, wave, sound, or anything of the like by changing its direction from a linear one into a seemingly broken line.
E.G. Water refracts light more than glass does.
1. Stubborn, recalcitrant, untoward, unruly, disobedient.
2.(medical): Resisting ordinary methods of treatment, difficult to cure.
Think "refusing to stay in a straight line like normal people."
E.G. Refractory kids.
E.G. only an experienced trainer was able to control the refractory horse.
Include or absorb something (idea, belief, theory) into something (rule, law, theory) more comprehensive or broader.
E.G. most of these events can be subsumed under three broad categories.
E.G. Red, yellow, and white are subsumed under the word "color."
E.G. Games and sports are subsumed under the classification "recreation."
E.G. the early American settlers issued a set of principles to govern their life. These principles were subsumed under a broader ideology call republicanism.
Think "esculent," meaning edible.
E.G. The steak was succulent.
E.G. Succulent grapes.
The greatest or the highest good.
E.G. for millennia, human beings have searched for the summa bonum.
E.G. In the eyes of poets, romancers, and lotharios, love is the summa bonum.
E.G. Many teens are sucked into the vortex of the drug culture, thinking it is the summa bonum of earthly pleasure.
retired for being too old, outdated, outmoded.
E.G. The superannuated clerk works as a volunteer in the school.
E.G. Superannuated beliefs.
E.G. Superannuated machine.
Superfluous; going beyond what's required.
E.G. the coach decided that the team is ready for the game, and any more practice would be supererogatory.
E.G. The teacher's panegyrics were supererogatory and adscititious because everyone knew that mary was the best student.
E.G. Students must try to avoid discussing tangential issues in their essay. They should adhere to the main topic.
E.G. Tangential remarks.
E.G. John gave a tangential answer to the question, circumventing the topic.
1. A signal sounded on a drum, bugle, or trumpet telling soldiers at night to go to their quarters.
2. A drumming noise.
E.G. The tattoo sounded at 9:00 P.M.
E.G. The relentless tattooing of the rain reached a crescendo.
a system or a government made of technologists, engineers, and scientists controlling or governing a society.
E.G. Some observers believe that America is becoming a technocracy.
1. Moderate, mitigate, restrain
2. Toughen metal through heating and cooling; vulcanize.
E.G. The critic tempered her tone about the new book by saying that it had some positive points.
E.G. The steel must be properly tempered.
E.G. The general tempered his troops through excessive, Herculean exercise (toughened them).
E.G. Justice tempered with mercy (mitigated).
restrain, self-control in statements and actions, moderation.
Do not confuse with temperament (mood or disposition).
E.G. John admires temperance in everything--especially in foods and drinks.
E.G. His temperance and politics statements garnered him support from both parties.
A long ride-like structure, typically a series of arches, used to carry railroads and highway across a river or a valley.
E.G. A viaduct over the Mississippi river connects Arkansas with Tennessee.
Changes in fortunes or circumstances, typically in an unpleasant way: ups and downs.
When one talks about the vicissitudes of life, one is referring to unpleasant changes in circumstances: losing a pet, crashing a car, feeling sick....etc.
E.G. John and Mary remained friends through the vicissitudes of 40 years.
E.G. The vicissitudes of seasons.
E.G. The turning wheels of vicissitude
1. Decorative design as a picture, small drawing, illustration on the cover page of a book.
2. Literary composition, typically less than 500 words; it is usually an elegant piece of writing ghazi the elegant, decorative quality of a vignette (picture on a book).
E.G. The English teacher asked his students to write a vignette.
E.G. You will see a vignette at the beginning of the book.
EG. The writer decided to vignette hi idea.
Verve, energy, enthusiasm.
E.G. The dancers put more vim into their performance.
E.G. When john was young and full of vim, al he wanted was to swim.
E.G. The snap and vim that he players put into their practice paid off at the end
Manly, masculine, powerful.
Think "Feral" meaning vicious, so "virile" means strong and manly.
E.G. A virile energy
E.G. The players possessed a remarkable virile strength.G. "Virile nations are not made by theories or by the blast of the trumpet"--C. Gasquoine Hartley. (Powerful)
E.G. John writes with a virile literary style (Powerful).
Added or appearing accidentally from the outside in a foreign way that is not native to the original part of things; accidental; extrinsic; not inherent; not innate.
E.G. "These rodents ... appear suddenly in the Oligocene, as if by adventitious entrance independent of the rest of the fauna" (George Gaylord Simpson).
E.G. The issue of morality that surrounds art is adventitious; the study of art should be for art's sake only.
E.G. The house was purely Colonial without any adventitious additions.
Shield; protection; sponsorship.
E.G. Negotiations are being conducted under the aegis of the united nations.
Divine inspirations; creative impulse.
E.G. The novelist at the writing workshop says that it is better to start writing than to wait for divine afflatus because that may never arrive.
for a still stronger reason.
E.G. "But I do not feel that I and my fellow citizens have a religious duty to sacrifice our lives in a war on behalf of our own state, and, a fortiori, I do not feel that we have an obligation or a right to kill a maim citizens of other states or to devastate their land." (Arnold Toynbee)
1. Nimble; supple; lithe.
2. Marked by an ability to think fast.
E.G. an agile dancer.
E.G. an agile debater.
Good will and trust among friends; friendship.
E.G. There is a great camaraderie amongst students in Dr. Ball's class.
1. Hypocritical or sanctimonious talk that is often of a political or religious nature.
2. Language or parlance of a particular group.
E.G. After the editor removed the cant from the politician's speech, little was left.
E.G. If they stop canting about hard work, they can probably have a serious conversation
E.G. The censorship bill that many politicians are trying to support is simply a cant.
faultfinding; trying to find and raise trivial objections to entrap a person in an argument.
E.G. The lawyer objected to the prosecutor's captious questioning of the witness.
E.G. Captious critics and captious questions.
E.G. A captious eater who has ever met an apple he did not hate.
Being captious by constantly being over critical and faultfinding.
E.G. The student is tired of the English teacher constantly carping about her grammar mistakes.
A substance or an agent that causes cancer
E.G. Scientists have identified thousands of carcinogens in grilled food.
Think of a room as a good commodity -- a spacious room.
E.G. His promotion to a director meant that John would be moving into a more commodious office.
to be sensitive or receptive to something; to have a spiritual contact or bond with something
a small group with members that share possessions and responsibilities.
E.G. The poet cloistered himself into a cabin in the mountains to commune with nature.
E.G. John uses prayer to commune with God.
E.G. Mary lives in a commune.
Partnership in crime.
E.G. The suspect denied complicity in the crime.
E.G. The concave shell.
E.G. The convex lenses.
a philosophical theory which postulates that certain qualities or essence are intrinsically and innately part of a person, group, or concept and, those innate qualities that are part of the identity of that person, group or concept that makes them what they are.
E.G. Essentialism argues that homosexuals are homosexuals because they have an innate quality that define their essence. Heterosexuals are heterosexuals because innately, this quality exists in them and define who they are.
E.G. The philosopher describes essentialism as the tendency to ascribe some essence or innate qualities to all members of a particular group.
1. Spiritual, not tangible.
2. Exquisite and refined as in "ethereal beauty."
E.G. The wraith lives an ethereal existence.
1. The belief that one's ethnicity or culture is superior to other ethnicities, cultures, or nations.
2. Thinking of other cultures or people from the perspective of one's own ethnicity.
E.G. Many patriots were ethnocentric, jingoistic, and chauvinistic.
E.G. Colonialism, military expansionism, and racial hegemony were often inspired by deep, ethnocentric beliefs.
E.G. It's easy to make ethnocentric assumptions when studying other cultures.
The spirit, character, beliefs, or customs of a culture, group, or era.
E.G. The ethos of the company was characterized by diligence, punctuality, and professionalism.
E.G. The writer described the ethos of a free society.
E.G. The ethos of the political body is what makes it a democratic entity.
Cause or origin, especially that of a disease.
Think "etiolate" meaning to cause to be sick.
E.G. A disease of an unknown etiology.
E.G. If you can tell your friend about the etiology of hiccups, she'll be happy because etiology means the causes of something.
E.G. Sociologists are trying to determine the etiology of crime in Gary, Indiana.
Just and unbiased; fair.
E.G. An equitable balance of power.
E.G. equitable rights for all people.
behaving erroneously; deviating from proper course; wayward.
E.G. The errant man was arrested.
E.G. Many people would find his errant behavior toward women a form of sexual harassment.
attempt; try; put to test; experiment.
When you write an essay, you attempt to create one several times: attempting to first draft, a revised draft, then final draft, so to essay is to attempt or try.
esprit de corps
team spirit; a sense of camaraderie, unity, and bonding among members of a group.
E.G. over the course of the week, the campers developed an esprit de corps.
E.G. In spite of the fierce debate, the party members never lost their esprit de corps.
a group of elements that are unified and perceived as one
E.G. Many artists drew upon gestalt theory in their paintings.
Robust, strong, vigorous, and capable of enduring difficult conditions.
E.G. The college is hardy enough to withstand a tornado storm
E.G. John has grown from the child he was to become a hardy man.
E.G. Hardy explorers of Alaska
extremely distressing and terrifying
E.G. John managed to survive a harrowing ordeal.
E.G. he told some of the most harrowing stories.
E.G. Heroin leads to harrowing experiences.
E.G. vince black sopped the bully from hectoring the villagers.
E.G. he judge ordered the lawyer to stop hectoring the witness
E.G. Thekids hectored the poor dog.
the culture and civilization of ancient Greece.
E.G. Hellenism had a great influence on the culture of Europe.
requiring great strength and courage...like Hercules.
E.G. a herculean task.
E.G. he has herculean physique.