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Civics Chapter 1
Terms in this set (80)
plan of govt. that sets forth the structures and powers of govt.
rule of the people
constitutional govt. governed by the rule of law
constitutions that include elements of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy
the highest legislature, consisting of the sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons
form of government that gets its powers directly or indirectly from the people
the body of political practices developed through custom and tradition
plan of government that sets forth the structures and powers of government
the good of the community as a whole, as contrasted with private interests that may conflict with public interest
idea that monarchs derive their authority directly from God
doctrine that people have basic rights, such as life, liberty, and property in a state of nature
refers to the presumption of an imaginary or actual agreement among people to set up a government and obey its laws
state of nature
condition of people living in a situation without government; anarchy
natural rights concept that ultimate political authority rests with the people
consent of the governed
agreement by the citizens to obey the laws and the government they create
an economic system in which the means of producing and distributing goods are privately owned and operated for profit in competitive markets
beliefs and practices that have their historical roots in Judaism and Christianity
law of nature
often referred to rules that would prevail in the absence of man-made law
the ultimate, supreme power in a state
a formal contract or agreement between or among two or more parties or states
native Americans; disease, warfare, colonial enroachment
Who were the first people to live in Colonial America?
What led to their decline?
religious reasons (Puritans, Quakers) and economic reasons (Virginia Company)
What were the 2 different reasons people were in America for?
their own official religion
What did most colonies establish?
__ colonies had legalized slavery. More than ___ by 1760.
climate and large scale farming
Why was slavery more popular in the South?
small scale family farms and indentured servitude
What did New England colonies rely more on?
Locke and Hobbes
Who were the founders most informed by?
By the 1770's, Americans had about ___ years of political ___ to rely on as well.
the most politically active people in the world
participate in jury's, town meetings, voting in local elections
By the 1770's, what could free white men do?
taught that those who served in politics must be wise
Greek & Roman history
shows that democracy begins better than it ends
What does democracy usually end with when the poor attack the rich?
What can tear apart a society?
natural rights theory
people have the rights that all others must respect, "life, liberty, and estate"
Who called the natural rights, "life, liberty, and estate"?
shows that even a monarchy can evolve into a free government
shows that a local govt. can coexist with a distant central govt. and that political and social unrest can arise if that central govt. is abusing its power
Government must be the ___ of the people, not the ___.
fundamental higher law (a constitution)
must limit the government
legislative, executive, judicial
What 3 functions must the government perform?
deliberate about what must be done then decide on the policy
carry out the policy
manage disputes about interpretation of law and application
right and corrupt
What are the 2 forms of government?
monarchy, aristocracy, polity
3 right forms of government:
tyranny, oligarchy, democracy
3 corrupt forms of government:
Founders chose to avoid ___ and chose a ___ instead.
plan that sets forth a structure and powers of a government
sets forth basic rights of citizens, establishes responsibility of govt. to protect those rights, establishes limitations on how govt. may use its power, can be changed only with consent of people
Higher law is different from a law enacted by a legislative in four main ways:
monarchy, republic, democracy, combinations of these
What forms of government historically have been "constitutional"?
Hobbes & Locke
founders of the natural rights philosophy
war of every man against every man would lead to chaos and fear of violent death, only way out is to create a social contract, state would lead in authoritarian manner to keep order
in a state of nature all people are free, equal, and natural, each individual has inalienable rights (life, liberty, estate), right to punish those who don't respect, rights can't survive in nature, must agree to form social contract & to a form of govt., if govt. fails people have right to replace it
individual rights, popular sovereignty/government by consent, limited govt., human equality
What are the aspects that influence the founders?
What religious tradition were the founders familiar with?
Judeo-Christian emphasized ____ morality, while G-R emphasizes ____ morality.
Christian teachings focus on ____ and ____ others.
What was the most unified presence in Europe in the middle ages?
expansion of this led to the breakup of medieval society
privately owned, competitive businesses; allowed people to make their own economic choices
people focused more on their own ____ rather than the ____ interests
hard work ethic
encouraged to help add to personal interests
natural rights and protestantism
contributed to the rise of capitalism
Seven Years' War was very difficult and ____.
house troops in homes
Higher ___ meant less money.
No taxation without ____.
suspend MA govt. and give more power to royal governor
What was the response to the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party?
Lexington and Concord
1st battle of the Revolutionary war; shot heard around the world
Richard Henry Lee
introduced a resolution in congress calling for independence on June 7, 1776
Hancock & the committee of 5
charged with writing a declaration in order to justify reasons to other nations
The DOI ___ the monarchy and appeals to natural rights.
Humans are ___ equal according to the DOI.
King George III and parliament
repeatedly violated the compact by abusing or denying natural rights of colonists
1. destroy colonial legislatures
2. judges dependent on King's will
3. standing armies in times of peace in colonies
4. quartering soldiers w/ civilians
5. taxation w/ out representation
6. depriving colonists right to trial by jury of their peers
7. altering colonial charters, changing the constitutions of colonial governments
A long train of abuses:
right of revolution
people's right to revolution government that acts beyond its rights
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