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51 terms

Intro to Pharmacology

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Drug
chemical that interacts with an organism to alter its function, show biolgoical processes and provide methods of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease
Pharmacology
the study of the interaction of drugs with an organism
Pharmacodynamics
the study of drugs modes of action on an organism
Pharmacy
the practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations
Therapeutics
the branch of medicine concerned with the application of remedies and the treatment of disease
Hypersensitivity
an exaggerated adverse reaction to drug
Toxicology
the study of drugs' toxic effects on an organism
Entral
absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract
Parenteral
injected directly into the body
Transdermal
absorbed through the skin using timed-release
Topical
absorbed through the skin
Inhalation
absorbed through the respiratory tract or alveoli
Pharmacokinetic
movement of the drug
Pharmacodynamic
the drug has its effect
Absorption
the mechanism by which a drug enters the body
Distribution
the mechanism by which the drug is transported to the site of action
Metabolism
the mechanism by which a dug interacts with and is processed by the body
Elimination
the mechanism by which a drug leaves the body
Selectivity
the degree to which a drug acts at one specific site or receptor
Lock and Key Receptor Theory
a visual analogy that is used to describe interactions between drugs or receptors
Racemic Drug
drugs that contain two isomers a part of a drug's chemical structure
Half-Life
the amount of time it takes for a drug's concentration in the body to decrease by half once administered
Loading dose
administration of a higher dose than that used for maintenance in order to rapidly increase drug concentration
Maintenance dose
administration of a drug at dosage levels that maintain a therapeutic drug concentration
Potency
relative drug strength
Efficacy
the degree to which a drug exerts its intended effect
Idiosyncrasy
an unexpected reaction to a drug caused by unusual susceptibility to the drug
Agonist
drug action describing a drug that has an affinity for a receptor and activates a response
Antagonist
a drug action describing a drug that has an affinity for a receptor and does not activate a response
Additive
a drug action describing two drugs' effects as being equal to the summation of their individual effects
Syergism
drug action describing two drugs effects as being greater than the summation of their individual effects with both drugs being active
Potentiation
a drug action describing two drugs' effects as being greater than the summation of their individual effects, with one drug being active and one drug being inactive
Cumulation
a condition that exists when a drug's rate of elimination or inactivation is slower than its rate of administration
Tolerance
refer to the need for an ever increasing amount of a drug to continue to produce a given effect
Tachyphylaxis
is a rapidly occurring form of tolerance
Teratogenicity
a drug's potential to cause fetal damage in utero when administered to a pregnant woman
Lethal Dose50
the dose of a drug that is lethal in 50% of a test group of animals
Effective Dose50
the dose of a drug that is therapeutically effective in 50% of a test group of animals
Therapeutic Index
the ratio of Lethal Dose50/Effective Dose50
Chemical Name
this is the first name a potential drug receives
Code Name
this is a name assigned to the chemical by its manufacturer during the testing process
Generic Name
this is the name assigned to the chemical by the USAN when it appears to have therapeutic value and the manufacturer wants to market it
Official Name
the Generic name becomes the Official name when the drug receives approval from the Food & Drug Administration
Trade Name
name given to a drug by its manufacturer when the drug is marketed
Official Source of Information
Government issued
Unofficial Source of Information
Non-Government issued
Prescription
includes name, strength, dosage, route of administration, frequency and length
Preventing Medication errors
5 Rights: drug, dose, pt, time, and route
QD
Each Day
QID
Four times daily
Q2H
Every 2 hours