17 terms

The Persian Wars

The wars between the Greeks and the Persians
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Persia
An empire which began in southwestern Iran during the 500's B.C.
Cyrus the Great
The king who built Persia to be the largest empire of its time
Darius
The son of Cyrus who reorganized the government and invaded Greece at Marathon
Satrapies
20 provinces that were run by a governor
Satrap
A governor, tax collector, judge, and chief of police who answered only to the king
Zoroastrianism
A Persian religion that focuses on Good verses evil and people having free will to choose sides
Sparta
The city-state that helped Athens to defeat the Persians
Marathon
The first battle of the Persian Wars and an Olympic event. It happened in 490 B.C.
Xerxes
The son of Darius who vowed revenge against the Greeks and invaded the country a second time
Thermopylae
The mountain pass where the Spartans held off a powerful Persian army for 2 days before being wiped out.
Salamis
A naval battle in which the Athenians wiped out much of the Persian fleet.
Plataea
The turning point of the war with Persia in which a combined Greek force defeated much of the Persian army in 479 B.C.
Athens was encouraging Greek colonies to rebel against Persia
This was the main cause for the wars with Persia.
Themistocles
The Athenian general who came up with the plan to defeat Persia
Triremes
A name given to the Greek warships
Pheidippides
He was the runner who ran back to Athens after the victory at Marathon.
Heavy taxes, murder plots, weak rulers, invasion by Alexander the Great
These are the reasons why the Persian Empire eventually fell.