APUSH Terms by Theme

Terms in this set (8)

-MAYAS: In the cultures of Central and South America, the native population was made up of three highly developed civilizations. One of these civilizations was the Mayas, who between A.D. 300 and 800 built remarkable cities in the rain forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, which is now present-day Guatemala, Belize, and Southern- Mexico. Cultivated corn as a source of food.

-AZTECS -CENTRAL AMERICA: Another one of these civilizations was the Aztecs. Several centuries after the decline of the Mayas, the Aztecs, who were from central Mexico, developed a powerful empire. Tenochitlan, the Aztec capital, had a population of about 200,000, which was equivalent to the population of the largest cities of Europe. The Aztecs dominated Mexico and Central America. Cultivated corn as a source of food.

-INCAS- SOUTH AMERICA: Based in Peru, the Incas developed a vast empire in South America. Cultivated potatoes as a source of food. All three civilizations developed highly organized societies, carried on an extensive trade, and created calendars that were based on accurate scientific observations. All three cultivated crops that provided a stable food supply.

-CONQUISTADORES: The explorers and conquerors of Spain, to whom Spain owed its expanding power to.

-HERNAN CORTÉS: Carried out the conquests of the Aztecs in Mexico, which was one of many feats that secured Spain's initial supremacy in the Americas.

-FRANCISCO PIZARRO: Carried out the conquest of the Incas in Peru, which was another one of the many feats that secured Spain's initial supremacy in the Americas.

-NEW LAWS OF 1542: Introduced to the king by Bartolomé de Las Casas (see Bartolomé de Las Casas). These laws ended Indian slavery, stopped forced Indian labor, and began to end the encomienda system (see encomienda system) which kept the Indians in serfdom. Conservative Spaniards who were in favor of the encomienda system, responded to these laws and convinced the king to repeal parts of the New Laws.

-ROANOKE ISLAND: Located off the coast of North Carolina, it is the location of where an English adventurer, Sir Walter Raleigh, attempted to establish a settlement.
-COMPASS: During the 15th and 16th centuries in Europe, a rebirth occurred that prompted an outburst of artistic and scientific activity. This period is known as the Renaissance. Several improvements in technology occurred during this time, as a result of Europeans making improvements in what has already been invented. One of these improvements was the sailing compass, which was adopted from Arab merchants who learned about it from the Chinese.

-PRINTING PRESS: Another object invented during the Renaissance, the printing press was invented in the 1450s, which aided the spread of knowledge across Europe.

-FERDINAND AND ISABELLA: Isabella, queen of Castile, and Ferdinand, king of Aragon, married in 1469. Spanish Christians reconquered the land that was conquered by Islamic invaders in the 8th century, the land being what is now Spain. After the Spanish Christians reconquered the land, they established independent kingdoms. Their marriage united two of largest kingdoms. In 1492, under the leadership of Isabella and Ferdinand, the Spanish conquered the last Moorish (Islamic invaders) stronghold in Spain, the city of Granada. The couple backed Christopher Columbus by being the financial support for the endeavor, as well as providing three ships, and they would make Columbus governor, admiral, and viceroy of all the lands that we would claim for Spain.

-PROTESTANT REFORMATION: Certain Christians in Germany, England, France, Holland, and other northern European countries revolted against the authority of the pope in Rome. Their revolt is known as the Protestant Reformation.

-HENRY THE NAVIGATOR: Prince of Portugal, sponsored voyages of explorations to find a new way to the rich Asian trade.

-CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS: Columbus spent eight years seeking financial support for his plan to sail west from Europe to the "Indies". Eventually he won the backing of Isabella and Ferdianad. Eventually, Columbus landed on an island in the Bahamas on October 12. His success of just reaching land brought him glory in Spain, but his discoveries over three voyages across the atlantic were disappointing, with little discovery of gold, few spices, and no simple path to China and India was found. He died in 1506, believing he had found a western route to Asia. Many Spaniards believed him to be a failure, because he did not find a valuable trade route, but a "New World". His arrival in the Americas created a lasting contract between people on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean.

-TREATY OF TORDESILLAS: Spain and Portugal were the first European kingdoms to claim territories in the Americas. Their claims overlapped, which led to disputes. They turned to the pope in Rome to resolve their differences, and 1493, the pope drew a vertical, north-south line on a world map, known as the line of demarcation. Spain was granted all lands to the west of the line, and Portugal east of the line. A year later, the two kingdoms moved tthe pope's line a few degrees west and signed an agreement called the Treaty of Tordesillas. The line passed through what is now Brazil, and the treaty added on Brazil to the explorations already owned by Portugal.

-SLAVE TRADE: In the 15th century, the Portuguese began trading for slaves from West Africa.

-NATION-STATE: Countries that were replacing the small kingdoms and multiethnic empires in Europe, in which the majority of people shared both a common culture and common loyalty toward a central government.