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intake of food


breakdown of molecules


uptake nutrients into blood/lymph


elimination of undigested material


a milk protein digesting enzyme in children uncommon in adults


area between lips and teeth

churning action of stomach

layer of smooth muscle

accessory organs

teeth, tongue, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, salivary glands


mixes the food in the mouth

visceral peritoneum

serosa of stomach and intestines


serosa of abdominal wall

lesser omentum

attaches stomach to the liver

greater omentum

covers small intestines like an apron

mesentery of small intestine

holds many blood vessels; suspends small intestine from posterior body wall


sensitive, muscular maipulator of food

hard and soft palate

-uvula is here
-allow breathing and chewing at the same time

hard and soft palate

anterosuperior boundary of oral cavity


begins starch digestion


gum chewing is a mechanical stimulus to help prevent dry mouth


-food chute
-straight muscular tube 25-30 cm long


common passageway for food and air


mechanically breaks up food particles, liquifies the food and begins chemical digestion of protein and fat


soupy mixture from the stomach


opening to duodenum (pyloric sphincter)

mucous cells

secrete muscus and consist of folds called rugae

HCl acid and intrinsic factor

gastrin causes an increase hormonal response

functions of hydrochloric acid

activates enzymes pepsin and lingual lipase


-chief cell, protein digestion
-secreted as pepsinogen (an inactive zymogen)
-HCl converts it to pepsin (active form)
-pepsin then activates more pepsinogen


-digests butterfat of milk in infants (Rennin)
-comes from the pancreas

cephalic phase

vagus nerve stimulates gastric secretion and motility just with sight, smell, taste or thought of food (psychological)

liver secretion

causes liver to increase bile output


causes release of bile


-sac on underside of liver
-stores and concentrates bile


-yellow-green fluid containing minerals, bile acids, cholesterol, bile pigments and phospholipids
-between meals, it is concentrated by factor of 20


-protein digesting enzymes amylase and nucleases
-pancreatic juice into duodenum

hormone control by

cholecystokinin and secretin

small intestine

nearly all chemical digestion and nutrient absorption occurs here

lleocecal valve

separates small intestine from large

plicae circularis

circular folds of small intestine; up to 10mm tall


-fingerlike projections 1 mm tall
-contain blood vessels and lymphatics


-1 micron tall
-brush border on cells
-brush border enzymes for final stages of digestion

peyer patches

-populations of lymphocytes to fight pathogens
-also known as collection of lymphatic tissue

intestinal motility

intestinal juice, bile and pancreatic juice


occurs as food is broken down both chemically and mechanically


structure that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body wall

oral cavity, stomach

two anatomical regions involved in the physical breakdown of food

three extensions/modifications of the peritoneum

greater omentum, lesser omentum, mesentery


literally a food chute, no digestion or absorption occurs


folds of the stomach mucosa


saclike outpocketings of the large intestine wall


projections of the plasma membrane of a cell that increase the cells surface area

ileocecal valve

prevents food from moving back into the small intestine once it has entered the large intestine

small intestine

organ responsible for most food and water absorption


organ primarily involved in water absorption and feces formation


blind sac hanging from the initial part of the colon


organ in which protein digestion begins

lesser omentum

membrane attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach

small intestine

organ in which the stomach empties

pyloric sphincter

sphincter, controlling the movement of food from the stomach into the duodenum

soft palate

uvula hangs from its posterior edge

small intestine

organ that receives pancreatic juices and bile

parietal peritoneum

serosa of the abdominal cavity wall

anal canal

region containing 2 sphincters, through which feces are expelled from the body

hard palate

anterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity; supported by bone




includes swallowing, segmentation and peristalsis

mechanical digestion

chewing, churning

chemical digestion

enzymatic breakdown


transport of nutrients from lumen to blood


elimination of feces

salivary amylase

starch digestion begins in the mouth when ___ is ducted in by the salivary glands

hormonal stimulus

gastrin, which prods the stomach glands to produce more enzymes and HCl represents a ___

psychological stimulus

the fact that the mere thought of a relished food can make your mouth water is an example of ___

mechanical stimulus

many people chew gum to increase saliva formation when their mouth is dry. This is an example of ___


protein foods are largely acted on in the stomach by ___


for the stomach protein-digesting enzymes to become active, ___ is needed


since living cells of the stomach are largely protein, it is amazing that they are not digested by the activity of stomach enzymes. The most important means of stomach protection is the ___ it produces


a milk protein-digesting enzyme found in children but uncommon in adults


the third layer of smooth muscle found in the stomach wall allows mixing and mechanical breakdown by ___

brush border enzymes

important intestinal enzymes

bicarbonate-rich fluid

the small intestine is protected from the corrosive action of hydrochloric acid in chyme by ___, which is ducted in by the pancreas


the pancreas produces protein-digesting enzymes, amylase and nucleases. It is the only important source of ___


a nonenzyme substance that causes fat to be dispersed into smaller globules

cholecystokinin and secretin

these two hormones stimulate the pancreas to release its secretions


this hormone stimulates increased production of gastric juice


this hormone causes the gallbladder to release stored bile


this hormone causes the liver to increase its output of bile

fructose, galactose, glucose

the building blocks of carbohydrates are monosaccharides, or simple sugars. The three common simple sugars in our diet are __, __, __

fatty acids

fats are broken down to two types of building blocks, __ and glycerol


of the simple sugars, ___ is most important because it is the sugar referred to as "blood sugar"

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