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Chapter 4 Evolution, Biological Communities and Species Interactions
Terms in this set (49)
the acquisition of traits that allow a species to survive in its environment
Trait must be
genetic for it to evolve
The process of better-selected individuals passing their traits to the next generation
changes in DNA coding sequence that occur by chance (e.g., random mistakes in DNA replication, exposure to radiation, toxins...)
Von Liebig proposed the single factor in shortest supply relative to demand
Shelford later expanded by stating that each environmental factor has both minimum and maximum levels, beyond which a particular species cannot survive or is unable to reproduce. The factor closest to the limits is the critical factor that determines where an organism can live.
the place or set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives
describes either the role played by a species in a biological community or the total set of environmental factors that determine a species distribution
has a broad niche (brown rat)
has a narrow niche (giant panda)
principle of competitive exclusion
states that no two species can occupy the same ecological niche at the same time. The one that is more efficient at using resources will exclude the other.
species co-exist in a habitat by utilizing different parts of a single resource. Example: swallows eat insects during the day and bats eat insects at night.
the development of a new species
The new population evolves independently of the first, creating a new species
organisms continue to live in the same place but become isolated by some other means.
the shift toward one extreme of a trait
range of a trait is narrowed
traits diverge toward the two extremes
the study of organisms and their relationships. It traces how organisms have descended from common ancestors
competition among members of the same species which can be reduced if: young disperse, exhibiting strong territoriality,resource partitioning between generations
competition between members of different species
is any organism that feeds directly on another organism, whether or not this kills the prey.
mediated competition - one species may be the best competitor in a given location, but predators may reduce its abundance and allow the weaker competitor to increase its numbers
Over time predator and prey evolve in response to one another
Two harmful species evolve to look alike
Harmless species mimic the warning coloration of harmful species to gain protection
both organisms benefit from their association (e.g., a fungus and an alga combine to make a lichen)
one species benefits while the other neither benefits nor is harmed (e.g., a bromeliad growing on the trunk of a tree absorbs water and nutrients dripping down the tree trunk without harming the tree)
a form of predation, is also sometimes considered a symbiosis because of the dependency of the parasite on its host.
two or more species live intimately together with their fates linked.
plays a critical role in a biological community that is out of proportion to its abundance.
rate of biomass production. Used as an indication of the rate of solar energy conversion to chemical energy
Net Primary Productivity
energy left after respiration
total number of organisms in a community
number of different species, ecological niches, or genetic variation
patterns of spatial distribution of individuals and populations within a community
Organisms are found wherever resources are available.
Organisms gather together for protection, mutual assistance (hunting), reproduction, access to resources
organisms are distributed in highly regular patterns. Often the result of competition (
the number of trophic levels and number of species at each trophic level in a community
lack of fluctuation in composition or function
resistance to perturbation
ability to repair damage after a disturbance
important aspect of community structure is the boundary between one habitat and adjacent ones
boundaries between adjacent communities
A community begins to develop on a site previously unoccupied by living organisms. Example: A lava flow creates a new land area that is colonized. The first colonists are termed pioneer species.
an existing community is disrupted and a new one subsequently develops at the site
community that develops last and remains the longest
adapted species - Some landscapes never reach a climax community because they are characterized by periodic disturbances (such as wildfires
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