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16 terms

Neuronal Pools

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wuat is a neuronal pool
functional groups of neurons that integrate incoming information from receptors which then forward processed information to other destingations

functional groups of neurons that process and integrate information
name the zones of neuronal pool and explain
DISCHARGE POOL - those neurons that are closely associated with neuron of incoming signal, this is the one that is most likely to fire (either ExC or InH) as they have the strongest GRADED POTENTIAL

FACILITATED ZONE - neurons furthur away from incoming fiber and do not reach threshold, but because of SUMMATION they are easier to depolarise than before because of the cumulative effects of Graded Potentials
what is the patters of synaptic connections in neuronal pools
circuits
circuits
pattern of synaptic connections in neuronal pools
name the types of neuronal circuits
DIVERGENCE (same pathway and multiple pathway)

CONVERGING CIRCUITS (single source or multple source)

REVERTEBRATING/OSCILLATING

PARRALLEL AFTER DISCHARGE
name and briefly explain different neuronal circuits, also discuss their practicality DIVERGENCE AMPLIFYING CIRCUITS
DIVERGENCE AMPLIFYING CIRCUITS - one incoming fiver triggers responses in EVER INCREASING amount of neurons further and further along curcuit, so that one neuron from brain can activate hundreds of motor neurons and thereby thousands of motor units in skeletal muscle fibres

can occur in single pathway (same pathway) or along several (multiple pathway)
me and briefly explain different neuronal circuits, also discuss their practicality CONVERGING CIRCUIT
where postsynaptic neuron receives input from several of its dendrites (can be InH or ExC), usuallly this is from multople different presynaptic neurons, or it can be from a single presynaptic neurons channeling signals to multiple dendrites

has concentrating/funneling effect

convergence from different areas explain how different types of sensory stimuli can have same ultimate effect or even a summation effect ie linking different senses like sight and sound and smell to associate it with a concep
me and briefly explain different neuronal circuits, also discuss their practicality REVERTEBRATING OSCILLATING CIRCUITS
incoming signals travel through chain of neurons, each of which makes collateral synapses with neurons in PREVIOUS part of pathway

POSITIVE FEEDBACK, impulses are sent though circuit again and again giving continous output until a neuron in the chain does not fire

involved in control of RHYTHMIC ACTIVITY ie sleep, breathing, arm swinging when walking
and briefly explain different neuronal circuits, also discuss their practicality PARRALLEL AFTER DISCHARGE SIRCUITS
similar to Convergence Circuit the difference is that there are many neurons inbetween the neuron that is firing and at the end it reaches a single neuron

incoming fiber stimulates several neurons arranged in PARALLEL ARRAYS that eventually reach a single common output cell

the impulses reach output cell at different times, creating bursts of impuleses called AFTER DISCHARGE that lasts for a longer time after initial input has ended as the signals are travelling though different routes they rach the final neuron at different times

involved in conplex typesof mental processing
name and explain different types of neuronal processing
Serial - input travels along one pathway to a specific destination

Parallel Processing - input travels along several different pathways to be integrated in different CNS regions
explain what serial processing is
a type of neuronal processing (serial or parrallel) where one neuron stimulates the next, eventually causing a specific anticipated response,

these stimuli are dealt with INDIVIDUALLY

these pathways trigger responses that are generally the same in everyone

ie spinal relfexes

and example comparing serial and parrallel stimuli is

stepping on a sharp object, the serial response is to step off the object quickly, while the parralllel response is to complain or moveon or remove the object from the ground so no one else steps on it
reflex
rapid AUTOMATIC responses to stimuli
what pathways do reflexes occur over and name their components
reflexes occur over neural pathways called REFLEX ARCS

the components include

-Receptor
- Sensory Neuron
-CNS integration centre
-Motor neuron
-Effector
name components of reflex arc
-receptor

-sensory neuron

-CNS integration centre

-Motor Neuron

-Effector
describe parrallel processing
inputs are segregated into many pathways and information dilivered by each pathway is INTEGRATED SIMULTANEOUSLY at different parts of neural pathway

for each person parallel processing triggers some pathways that are unique in every persn

for example, the smell of something may trigger several responses ie remembering to buy something, or remembering a moment or event, remembering to do something

and example comparing serial and parrallel stimuli is

stepping on a sharp object, the serial response is to step off the object quickly, while the parralllel response is to complain or moveon or remove the object from the ground so no one else steps on it
what does suraface ectoderm form
neural tube and neural crest