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Bransford cumulative voc. 2

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hot spot
an area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it
stress
a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
Tension
stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
shearing
stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement
silica
A material found in magma that is formed from the elements oxygen and silicon; it is the primary substance of Earth's crust and mantle
dormant
not currently active but able to become active in the future (like a volcano)
focus
the point beneath Earth's surface where rock first breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
epicenter
the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
Richter scale
a scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves
moment magnitude scale
a scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake
land reclamation
the process of restoring land to a more natural, productive state
deforestation
the action of clearing forests
urbanization
the development of large land areas for cities
eutrophication
the buildup over time of nutrients in freshwater lakes and ponds that leads to an increase in the growth of algae
chlorofluorocarbon
human-made gases containing chlorine and fluorine (also called CFCs) that are the main cause of ozone depletion
emissions
pollutants that are released into the air
photochemical smog
a brownish thick haze that is a mixture of ozone and other chemicals formed when pollutants react with sunlight
ozone
a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of the ususl two; toxic to organisms where it forms near the Earth's surface
acid rain
rain or another from of precipitation that is more acidic than normal, caused by the release of molecules of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the air
radon
a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas
ozone layer
the layer of the upper atmosphere that contains a higher concentration of ozone than the rest of the atmosphere
tributary
a stream or river that flows into a larger river
watershed
the land area that supplies water to a river system
water table
the top of the saturated zone, or depth to the groundwater under Earth's surface
pesticide
a chemical that kills insects and other crop-destroying organisms
wetland
a land area that is covered with a shallow layer of water during some or all of the year
mid-ocean ridge
an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary under the ocean
sea-floor spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
deep-ocean trench
a deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle
subduction
the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
plate
a section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of contintental and oceanic crust
divergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
convergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
transform boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
plate tectonics
The theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
fault
a break in Earth's crust along which rocks move
rift valley
A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
geo-
land, earth
pre-
before
re-
again
vit- viv-
life
relative age
the age of a rock compared to the ages of other rocks
absolute age
the age of a rock given as the number of years since the rock formed
law of superposition
the geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it
fault
a break in Earth's crust along which rocks move
index fossil
fossils of widely distributed organisms that lived during a geologically short period
radioactive decay
the process in which radioactive elements break down, releasing fast-moving particles and energy
half-life
the time it takes for half of the atoms of a radioactive element to decay
continental drift
the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across earth's surface
Pangaea
the name of the single landmass that began to break apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents
un- , in-, im-, il-, ir-
lot
dis-
not, or opposite of
-less
without
-ful
full of
fossil
the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past
mold
a type of fossil that is a hollow area in sediment in the shape of an organism or part of an organism
cast
a fossil that is a solid copy of an organism's shape, formed when minerals seep into a mold
petrified fossil
a fossil in which minerals replace all or part of an organism
carbon film
a type of fossil consisting of an extremely thin coating of carbon on rock
trace fossil
a type of fossil that provides evidence of the activities of ancient organisms
paleontologist
a scientist who studies fossils to learn about organisms that lived long ago
evolution
change over time; the process by which modern organism's have descended from ancient organisms
extinct
1. a group of related organisms that has died out and has no living members. 2. term used to describe a volcano that is no longer active and unlikely to erupt again
describe
Give an account of; present in detail the characteristics by which an object or action can be recognized, or an event or process visualized
distinguish
mark as different
support
make by combining materials and parts
formulate
to put in a clear and definite form of statement of expression
infer
the process of drawing a conclusion by applying clues
demonstrate
provide evidence for; stand as proof of
extrusive rock
igneous rock that forms from lava on Earth's surface
intrusive rock
igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface
foliated
term used to describe metamorphic rocks that have grains arranged in parallel layers or bands
sediment
small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or the remains of organisms; earth materials deposited by erosion
weathering
the chemical and physical processes that break down rock and other substances
erosion
the process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered particles of rock and soil
deposition
process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
compaction
the process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight
igneous rock
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
sedimentary rock
a type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
metamorphic rock
a type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
summarize
stating briefly and succinctly
contrasts
the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared
illustrates
clarify by giving an example of
compare
put side by side, balance, match up to
seismic wave
A vibration that travels through earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
inner core
a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
lithosphere
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
asthenosphere
the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
outer core
the liquid layer of the Earth's core that lies beneath the Mantle and surrounds the inner Core
radiation
energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles
convection
the transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas)
basalt
a dense dark gray fine-grained igneous rock
pressure
the force applied to an area of surface
granite
A usually light colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust
mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
density
the amount of matter in a given space (calculation: mass/volume)
conduction
the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching
crust
the outer layer of the Earth