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Examination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope, a specialized microscope used to examine the vagina and cervix, often with a camera attachment for photographs - used to document findings and follow-up treatments
Papanicolaou smear (Pap)
Study of cells collected from the cervix to screen for cancer and other abnormalities
Dilation and curettage (D&C)
Dilation of the cervix and scraping of the endometrium to control bleeding, obtain tissue for biopsy, or remove polyps or products of conception
Inspection of the abdominal or pelvic cavity with a laparoscope, an endoscope used to examine the abdominal and pelvic regions
Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)
Use of electrosurgical or radio waves transformed through a loop-configured electrosurgical device to treat precancerous lesions by simultaneous excisional biopsy and treatment of affected tissue (e.g., cervical dysplasia, human papilloma virus lesions); note that the transformation zone is the area of the cervix where neoplasia (abnormal cell formation) is most likely to arise; aka large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ)
Excision of a breast tumor without removing any other tissue or lymph nodes; most often followed by radiation and/or chemotherapy if cancerous
True toxemia of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, albuminuria, edema of the legs and feet, severe headaches, dizziness, convulsions, and coma
Implantation of the fertilized egg outside the uterine cavity, often in the tube, ovary, or (rarely) the abdominal cavity
Presence, or lack, or antigens on the surface of red blood cells that may cause a reaction between the blood of the mother and fetus, resulting in fetal anemia (which causes erythroblastosis fetalis)
Severe nausea and vomiting in pregnancy that can cause severe dehydration in the mother and fetus
Aspiration of a small amount of amniotic fluid for analysis of possible fetal abnormalities
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