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16 terms

Chapter 8: Photosynthesis

Vocabulary terms from Chapter 8 of Prentice Hall Biology. THIS IS A HARD CHAPTER! This chapter covers the process of photosynthesis (WAY HARDER THAN IT SOUNDS). :)
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autotroph
an organism that makes its own food, such as a plant
heterotroph
an organism that obtains its energy from the food it consumes
adenosine triphosphate
one of the principal compounds that cells use to store and release energy, abbreviated as ATP
adenosine diphosphate
a compound similar to ATP, but with two phosphate groups instead of three, abbreviated as ADP
photosynthesis
the process by which plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy carbohydrates and oxygen as a waste product
pigment
a light-absorbing molecule that plants use to gather the sun's energy
chlorophyll
the plants' principal pigment, absorbs blue-violet and red light very well, but not green light
thylakoid
a saclike photosynthetic membrane contained inside the chloroplasts
grana
stacks of thylakoids
photosystem
a cluster of pigments that is the light-collecting unit of the chloroplast
stroma
the region of the chloroplast outside the thylakoid membranes where the Calvin cycle takes place
NADP+
a carrier molecule of the electron transport chain that accepts and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion (H+)
NADPH
the compound that NADP+ is converted to; carries the high-energy electrons to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell
light-dependent reactions
the reactions in photosynthesis that require light that produces oxygen and converts ADP and NADP+ into ATP and NADPH
ATP synthase
an enzyme that allows H+ ions to pass through it and then rotates to bind ADP and a phosphate to produce ATP
Calvin cycle
light-independent reactions; a cycle in which ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions is used to produce high-energy sugars