Honors Physics: Chapter 1

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7 major areas of physics
mechanics, thermodynamics, vibrations and wave phenomena, optics, electromagnetism, relativity, quantum mechanics
motion and its causes, interactions between objets
mechanics
heat and temperature
thermodynamics
specific types of repetitive motions
vibrations and wave phenomena
light
optics
electricity, magnetism, and light
electromagnetism
particles moving at any speed, including very high speeds
relativity
behavior of submicroscopic particles
quantum mechanics
a pattern, plan, representation, or description designed to show the structure or working of an object, system, or concept
model
many of the models currently used in physics are ________ models
mathematical
physicists often use _______ to explain the most fundamental features of various phenomena
models
a set of particles or interacting components considered to be a distinct physical entity for the purpose of study
system
an explanation that is based on prior scientific research or observations and that can be tested
hypothesis
an experiment that tests only one factor at a time by using a comparison of a control group with an experimental group
controlled experiment
in an experiment to test a hypothesis, you must change _____ _______ at a time to determine what influences the phenomenon you are observing
one variable
the description of what kind of physical quantity is represented by a certain measurement is called ________
dimension
three basic dimensions
length, mass, time
physical quantities that can be described as a combination of length, mass, and time (the three basic dimensions)
force, velocity, energy, volume, acceleration
the description of how much of a physical quantity is represented by a certain numerical measurement
unit
although each dimension is unique, a dimension can be measured using different ______
units (ex. time can be measured in seconds, hours, or years)
how many SI base units are there?
7
base unit of length
meter
base unit of mass
kilogram
base unit of time
second
SI uses ________ to accommodate extremes
prefixes
measurements of physical quantities must be expressed in units that match the ________ of that quantity
dimensions
measurements used in calculations should have the same _____
units
a description of how close a measurement is to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured
accuracy
the degree of exactness of a measurement
precision
a numeric measure of confidence in a measurement or result is known as ________
uncertainty
during an experiment if some measurements are taken using one method, and some are taken using another method ______ _______ will result
method error
method error can be greatly reduced by _________ the method of taking measurements
standardizing
poor _______ involves errors that can often be corrected
accuracy
a lack of _______ is typically due to limitations of the measuring instrument and is not the result of human error or lack of calibration
precision
those digits in a measurement that are known with certainty plus the first digit that is uncertain
significant figures
a common convention used in science to indicate precision is known as ________ _________
significant figures
significant figures are the ones that we know for ______, as well as the first digit that is ________
certain -- uncertain
in scientific notation, the measurement is recorded to a power of 10, and all of the figures given are _________
significant
zeros between other nonzero digits are ________
significant (ex. 50.3 has 3 significant figures)
zeros in front of nonzeros are ________
not significant (ex. 0.892 has 3 significant figures)
zeros that are at the end of a number and also to the right of the decimal are _________
significant (ex. 57.00 has 4 significant figures)
significant figures rule for addition and subtraction
round the final answer to the first column from the left containing an estimated digit
significant figures rule for multiplication and division
final answer has the same number of significant figures as the measurement have the smallest number of significant figures
physicists use the tools of mathematics to describe measures or pre directed relationships between _______ ________ in a situation
physical quantities
to make expressions as simple as possible, physicists often use ______ to describe specific quantities in an equation
letters
______ _____ ______ estimates can also be used to estimate numbers in situations in which little information is given
order-of-magnitude
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