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118 terms

Chapter 11 Intrest Groups

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The case involving Eli Lilly and Company illustrates how
special interestsʹ campaign contributions can influence congressional action.
According to James Madison in Federalist Paper No. 1, the way to prevent any one group from
having too much power is to
increase the scope and number of groups.
Since the 1960s, the number of interest groups has
risen rapidly.
The right of interest groups to organize is
protected by the Bill of Rights
The term interest group can be generally defined as
an organization of people with similar policy goals entering the political process to try to
achieve those aims.
An organization of people with similar policy goals entering the political process to try to
achieve those aims is called
an interest group.
Which of the following is NOT typical of American interest groups?
They run their own slate of candidates for office in many parts of the country.
American political parties differ from interest groups in that parties
are policy generalists.
One of the main differences between American political parties and interest groups is that
political parties run candidates for office.
In Europe, interest groups
often form political parties
In many countries with multiparty systems and proportional representation, interest groups
frequently win some seats in the national legislature.
An interest group is more likely to form its own political party where
voters choose their legislators using proportional representation.
According to ________ theorists, interest groups compete and counterbalance one another in
the political marketplace.
pluralist
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Green parties in Europe have never been able to win enough votes to enter the national legislature.
The successes of civil rights and womenʹs rights groups in redirecting the course of public
policy, once they were organized, is pointed to as evidence to support the ________ theory that
American politics is open and not a problem.
pluralist
3. The group theory of politics offered by pluralist theorists argues all of the following EXCEPT
groups are all of equal strength.
The idea that just a few groups have all the power is associated with
elite theory.
A pluralistic interpretation of interest group politics would maintain that
all legitimate groups can affect public policy by means of one political resource or
another.
According to the group theory of politics,
groups do not play by the rules of the game.
The idea that interest group activity brings representation to all is associated with
pluralist theory.
Which of the following theories offers the most positive interpretation of the effect of interest
groups on American democracy?
pluralist
Pluralists argue that lobbying
is open to all and is therefore not to be regarded as a problem.
________ theorists are impressed by how insignificant most organized interest groups are.
Elitist
4. Elitist theorists argue that
the fact that there are numerous groups proves nothing, because most groups are
extremely unequal in power.
25. The ________ theorists argue that the power of the few is fortified by an extensive system of
interlocking directorates, and that wealthy corporations prevail when it comes to major
decisions by government.
elitist
12. The pluralist theory of American politics maintains that
the extensive organization of competing groups is evidence that influence is widely
dispersed among them
The presence and power of ultinational corporations illustrates
hyperpluralist theory
Elite theorists emphasize the power of
business leaders.
Elitist views of interest groups emphasize that
a system of interlocking directorates reinforces the power of the few dominant groups
Interest group liberalism is criticized especially by ________ theorists.
hyperpluralist
Interest group liberalism holds that
virtually all pressure group demands are legitimate, and the job of government is to
advance them all.
Interest group liberalism is associated with which of the following criticisms?
In an effort to please and appease every interest, agencies proliferate, conflicting
regulations expand, programs multiply, and the budgets skyrocket.
Interest group liberalism is promoted by
subgovernments
6. The criticism that government refuses to make tough choices between X or Y, instead
pretending there is no need to choose and trying to favor both is most often made by ________
theorists
hyperpluralist
The idea that too many groups are getting too much of what they want is associated with
hyperpluralist theory.
7. Interest group liberalism refers to
governmentʹs excessive deference to interest groups.
All subgovernments have the same goal
protecting their self-interest.
8. Subgovernments are composed of key interest group leaders interested in policy X, the
government agency in charge of administering policy X, and the ________ handling policy X.
congressional committees and subcommittees
Which of the following is NOT one of the major elements of the subgovernment system at the
national level?
federal court
9. /26. The hyperpluralist complaint that interest group politics creates subgovernments refers to
the cooperative efforts of group leaders, government agencies, and members of
congressional committees and subcommittees to promote special interests.
A hyperpluralist interpretation of group politics would maintain that
groups have become so powerful that government ends up aiding every possible
interest
Which of the following ideas is NOT associated with hyperpluralism?
Political power is highly concentrated
A(n) ________ group is composed of all people who might be group members because they
share some common interest.
potential
The free-rider problem refers to
potential members of a group failing to join the actual group, as they know they will
receive the same benefits whether they are active members or not.
14. Part of Olsonʹs Law of Large Groups is the argument that
the larger the potential group, the less likely potential members are to contribute.
According to Olsonʹs Law of Large Groups,
the larger the group, the further it will fall short of providing an optimal amount of a
collective good
15. ________ helps to explain why public interest lobbies have relatively small proportions of
actual members.
The free-rider problem
According to Olsonʹs Law of Large Groups,
the smaller the group, the more effective it will be.
16. Consumer organizations suffer from
Olsonʹs Law of Large Groups.
The biggest obstacle to the effectiveness of large groups is the
problem of raising funds and attracting government support.
All people who might be group members because they share some common interest make up
a potential group
Which of the following groups has the largest potential membership?
National Organization for Women
Which of the following groups claims the smallest share of its potential members?
National Consumers League
A ʺcollective goodʺ refers to
something of value that benefits both the actual and potential members of a group.
An example of a collective good is
clean air.
18. The free-rider problem refers to the difficulty of
groups in organizing all their potential members.
According to Mancur Olson,
the larger the group, the further it will fall short of providing an optimal amount of a
collective good.
19. An advantage for small groups is that
there is more at stake for each member, making it easier to organize and activate all
members.
According to Mancur Olson, small interest groups generally are ________ compared to all
other groups
less focused
21. An advantage of single-issue groups is their
intensity
A single-issue group is one that is all of the following EXCEPT
organizes on the national level only
Single-issue groups
include members with narrow, uncompromising interests.
Single-issue group politics has been especially emotional over the issue of
abortion
One of the major inducements of the American interest group system is that it
is biased toward the wealthy.
By 2000, the number of groups listed in the Encyclopedia of Associations was over
20,000.
29. Which of the following statements about interest groups is FALSE?
The growth rate of interest groups has slowed in recent years.
Technological improvements in communication have caused interest groups to
sharply increase in number.
________ is a communication by someone other than a citizen acting on his or her own behalf,
directed to a government decision maker, particularly in the legislative and executive branch,
with the hope of influencing his or her decision.
Lobbying
27. Three basic strategies employed by interest groups are all of the following EXCEPT
implementation
Which of the following is NOT one of the basic interest group strategies in America?
running candidates for office
22. A ʺcommunication by someone other than a citizen acting on his or her own behalf, directed to
a governmental decision maker with the hope of influencing his or her decisionʺ is a definition
of
lobbying
Which of the following is NOT a way in which a lobbyist can help a member of Congress?
introducing legislation in Congress
According to the text, one of the most common function of lobbyists is
provide information and ideas to members of Congress.
The text identifies two types of lobbyists,
full-time employees and consultants.
Many interest groups involve themselves in ________ to help get those they consider to be the
right people into office or to keep them there.
electioneering
Lobbyists provide members of Congress all of the following EXCEPT
None of the above; lobbyists provide all of the above to members of Congress.
According to the text, the least effective activity of lobbyists in Congress is
converting members of Congress to the lobbyistsʹ positions.
According to the text, lobbying works best
on people already committed to the lobbyistʹs policy position.
Political action committee (PAC) money goes overwhelmingly to
incumbents
Political Action Committees are primarily a means used by interest groups for
electioneering
Interest groups seeking to exert influence on the electoral process can honestly and openly
funnel money into the campaign coffers of their supporters through
Political Action Committees.
Most PAC money goes overwhelmingly to incumbents because incumbents
are the most likely to be able to return the investment.
Which of the following is NOT true about Political Action Committees?
Most PAC money goes to challengers rather than incumbents.
Steve Sovernʹs LASTPAC and Common Cause
agree that all candidates and officeholders should not accept money from political action
groups.
The most successful tactic that civil rights and environmental groups have used to influence
policy is
litigation
________ are written arguments submitted to the courts in support of one side of a case.
Amicus curiae briefs
An amicus curiae brief is
a written argument submitted to the courts in support of one side of a case.
Literally, amicus curiae means
friend of the court
Amicus curiae briefs
consist of written arguments submitted to the courts in support of one side of a case
________ enables a group of similarly situated plaintiffs to combine similar grievances into a
single suit.
A class action lawsuit
Flight attendants won a(n) ________ against the airline industryʹs regulation that all
stewardesses had to be unmarried.
class action lawsuit
Class action lawsuits
enable a group of similarly situated plaintiffs to combine similar grievances into a single
suit
In ʺgoing publicʺ interest groups
use advertising and public relations to enhance their image
Which of the following statements about interest groups going public is FALSE?
The public relations of most groups tend to be characterized by hard sell and bias
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
In the American economy, government directly determines wages, prices, and profits.
Economic groups
are those groups interested in wages, prices, and profits.
Right-to-work laws are most strongly supported by
business groups
The union shop
requires that all employees in a unionized business join the union
Right-to-work laws ________ the union shop
outlaw
The union shop
requires new employees to join the union representing them.
Right-to-work laws
outlaw union membership as a condition of employment
Business PACs
have increased more dramatically than any other category of PACs.
Environmental groups
grew dramatically after the first Earth Day in 1970.
One of the reasons that ʺbusinessʺ does not always get what it wants is
business groups often have different interests and want different things.
The first ________ in April 1970 helped to spur on a number of environmental groups.
Earth Day
Public interest lobbies are those organizations that
seek a collective good, the achievement of which will not selectively and materially
benefit members or activists.
Environmental groups have been most successful at
thwarting the expansion of the nuclear power industry.
That successful lobbying efforts by consumer groups benefits all consumers, and not just
group members, is an example of
a free-rider problem
Organizations seeking a collective good that may not benefit them directly are called
public interest lobbies.
The ________ is the oldest and largest of the African-American groups which have fought for
equality at the polls, in housing, on the job, in education, and in all other facets of American
life.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
The Fair Share program is an effort by the
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to negotiate agreements
with businesses to increase minority hiring and the use of minority contractors.
The National Organization for Women
now works for the enactment of individual statutes (laws) to protect womenʹs rights
rather than a constitutional amendment.
In addition to fighting segregation and discrimination, civil rights interest groups have also
focused on
broader economic problems.
The ________ movement was spurred by a single person: Ralph Nader.
consumer
Common Cause is an example of
a public interest lobby
An example of a public interest group is
Common Cause.
According to Robert Salisbury, the increase in lobbying activity has resulted in
less clout overall for interest groups.
The growth of both interest groups and the scope of government over the past several decades
represents
A) the former increasing the latter.
B) the latter increasing the former.