Chapter 11 Intrest Groups

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The case involving Eli Lilly and Company illustrates how

special interestsʹ campaign contributions can influence congressional action.

According to James Madison in Federalist Paper No. 1, the way to prevent any one group from
having too much power is to

increase the scope and number of groups.

Since the 1960s, the number of interest groups has

risen rapidly.

The right of interest groups to organize is

protected by the Bill of Rights

The term interest group can be generally defined as

an organization of people with similar policy goals entering the political process to try to
achieve those aims.

An organization of people with similar policy goals entering the political process to try to
achieve those aims is called

an interest group.

Which of the following is NOT typical of American interest groups?

They run their own slate of candidates for office in many parts of the country.

American political parties differ from interest groups in that parties

are policy generalists.

One of the main differences between American political parties and interest groups is that

political parties run candidates for office.

In Europe, interest groups

often form political parties

In many countries with multiparty systems and proportional representation, interest groups

frequently win some seats in the national legislature.

An interest group is more likely to form its own political party where

voters choose their legislators using proportional representation.

According to ________ theorists, interest groups compete and counterbalance one another in
the political marketplace.


Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Green parties in Europe have never been able to win enough votes to enter the national legislature.

The successes of civil rights and womenʹs rights groups in redirecting the course of public
policy, once they were organized, is pointed to as evidence to support the ________ theory that
American politics is open and not a problem.


3. The group theory of politics offered by pluralist theorists argues all of the following EXCEPT

groups are all of equal strength.

The idea that just a few groups have all the power is associated with

elite theory.

A pluralistic interpretation of interest group politics would maintain that

all legitimate groups can affect public policy by means of one political resource or

According to the group theory of politics,

groups do not play by the rules of the game.

The idea that interest group activity brings representation to all is associated with

pluralist theory.

Which of the following theories offers the most positive interpretation of the effect of interest
groups on American democracy?


Pluralists argue that lobbying

is open to all and is therefore not to be regarded as a problem.

________ theorists are impressed by how insignificant most organized interest groups are.


4. Elitist theorists argue that

the fact that there are numerous groups proves nothing, because most groups are
extremely unequal in power.

25. The ________ theorists argue that the power of the few is fortified by an extensive system of
interlocking directorates, and that wealthy corporations prevail when it comes to major
decisions by government.


12. The pluralist theory of American politics maintains that

the extensive organization of competing groups is evidence that influence is widely
dispersed among them

The presence and power of ultinational corporations illustrates

hyperpluralist theory

Elite theorists emphasize the power of

business leaders.

Elitist views of interest groups emphasize that

a system of interlocking directorates reinforces the power of the few dominant groups

Interest group liberalism is criticized especially by ________ theorists.


Interest group liberalism holds that

virtually all pressure group demands are legitimate, and the job of government is to
advance them all.

Interest group liberalism is associated with which of the following criticisms?

In an effort to please and appease every interest, agencies proliferate, conflicting
regulations expand, programs multiply, and the budgets skyrocket.

Interest group liberalism is promoted by


6. The criticism that government refuses to make tough choices between X or Y, instead
pretending there is no need to choose and trying to favor both is most often made by ________


The idea that too many groups are getting too much of what they want is associated with

hyperpluralist theory.

7. Interest group liberalism refers to

governmentʹs excessive deference to interest groups.

All subgovernments have the same goal

protecting their self-interest.

8. Subgovernments are composed of key interest group leaders interested in policy X, the
government agency in charge of administering policy X, and the ________ handling policy X.

congressional committees and subcommittees

Which of the following is NOT one of the major elements of the subgovernment system at the
national level?

federal court

9. /26. The hyperpluralist complaint that interest group politics creates subgovernments refers to

the cooperative efforts of group leaders, government agencies, and members of
congressional committees and subcommittees to promote special interests.

A hyperpluralist interpretation of group politics would maintain that

groups have become so powerful that government ends up aiding every possible

Which of the following ideas is NOT associated with hyperpluralism?

Political power is highly concentrated

A(n) ________ group is composed of all people who might be group members because they
share some common interest.


The free-rider problem refers to

potential members of a group failing to join the actual group, as they know they will
receive the same benefits whether they are active members or not.

14. Part of Olsonʹs Law of Large Groups is the argument that

the larger the potential group, the less likely potential members are to contribute.

According to Olsonʹs Law of Large Groups,

the larger the group, the further it will fall short of providing an optimal amount of a
collective good

15. ________ helps to explain why public interest lobbies have relatively small proportions of
actual members.

The free-rider problem

According to Olsonʹs Law of Large Groups,

the smaller the group, the more effective it will be.

16. Consumer organizations suffer from

Olsonʹs Law of Large Groups.

The biggest obstacle to the effectiveness of large groups is the

problem of raising funds and attracting government support.

All people who might be group members because they share some common interest make up

a potential group

Which of the following groups has the largest potential membership?

National Organization for Women

Which of the following groups claims the smallest share of its potential members?

National Consumers League

A ʺcollective goodʺ refers to

something of value that benefits both the actual and potential members of a group.

An example of a collective good is

clean air.

18. The free-rider problem refers to the difficulty of

groups in organizing all their potential members.

According to Mancur Olson,

the larger the group, the further it will fall short of providing an optimal amount of a
collective good.

19. An advantage for small groups is that

there is more at stake for each member, making it easier to organize and activate all

According to Mancur Olson, small interest groups generally are ________ compared to all
other groups

less focused

21. An advantage of single-issue groups is their


A single-issue group is one that is all of the following EXCEPT

organizes on the national level only

Single-issue groups

include members with narrow, uncompromising interests.

Single-issue group politics has been especially emotional over the issue of


One of the major inducements of the American interest group system is that it

is biased toward the wealthy.

By 2000, the number of groups listed in the Encyclopedia of Associations was over


29. Which of the following statements about interest groups is FALSE?

The growth rate of interest groups has slowed in recent years.

Technological improvements in communication have caused interest groups to

sharply increase in number.

________ is a communication by someone other than a citizen acting on his or her own behalf,
directed to a government decision maker, particularly in the legislative and executive branch,
with the hope of influencing his or her decision.


27. Three basic strategies employed by interest groups are all of the following EXCEPT


Which of the following is NOT one of the basic interest group strategies in America?

running candidates for office

22. A ʺcommunication by someone other than a citizen acting on his or her own behalf, directed to
a governmental decision maker with the hope of influencing his or her decisionʺ is a definition


Which of the following is NOT a way in which a lobbyist can help a member of Congress?

introducing legislation in Congress

According to the text, one of the most common function of lobbyists is

provide information and ideas to members of Congress.

The text identifies two types of lobbyists,

full-time employees and consultants.

Many interest groups involve themselves in ________ to help get those they consider to be the
right people into office or to keep them there.


Lobbyists provide members of Congress all of the following EXCEPT

None of the above; lobbyists provide all of the above to members of Congress.

According to the text, the least effective activity of lobbyists in Congress is

converting members of Congress to the lobbyistsʹ positions.

According to the text, lobbying works best

on people already committed to the lobbyistʹs policy position.

Political action committee (PAC) money goes overwhelmingly to


Political Action Committees are primarily a means used by interest groups for


Interest groups seeking to exert influence on the electoral process can honestly and openly
funnel money into the campaign coffers of their supporters through

Political Action Committees.

Most PAC money goes overwhelmingly to incumbents because incumbents

are the most likely to be able to return the investment.

Which of the following is NOT true about Political Action Committees?

Most PAC money goes to challengers rather than incumbents.

Steve Sovernʹs LASTPAC and Common Cause

agree that all candidates and officeholders should not accept money from political action

The most successful tactic that civil rights and environmental groups have used to influence
policy is


________ are written arguments submitted to the courts in support of one side of a case.

Amicus curiae briefs

An amicus curiae brief is

a written argument submitted to the courts in support of one side of a case.

Literally, amicus curiae means

friend of the court

Amicus curiae briefs

consist of written arguments submitted to the courts in support of one side of a case

________ enables a group of similarly situated plaintiffs to combine similar grievances into a
single suit.

A class action lawsuit

Flight attendants won a(n) ________ against the airline industryʹs regulation that all
stewardesses had to be unmarried.

class action lawsuit

Class action lawsuits

enable a group of similarly situated plaintiffs to combine similar grievances into a single

In ʺgoing publicʺ interest groups

use advertising and public relations to enhance their image

Which of the following statements about interest groups going public is FALSE?

The public relations of most groups tend to be characterized by hard sell and bias

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

In the American economy, government directly determines wages, prices, and profits.

Economic groups

are those groups interested in wages, prices, and profits.

Right-to-work laws are most strongly supported by

business groups

The union shop

requires that all employees in a unionized business join the union

Right-to-work laws ________ the union shop


The union shop

requires new employees to join the union representing them.

Right-to-work laws

outlaw union membership as a condition of employment

Business PACs

have increased more dramatically than any other category of PACs.

Environmental groups

grew dramatically after the first Earth Day in 1970.

One of the reasons that ʺbusinessʺ does not always get what it wants is

business groups often have different interests and want different things.

The first ________ in April 1970 helped to spur on a number of environmental groups.

Earth Day

Public interest lobbies are those organizations that

seek a collective good, the achievement of which will not selectively and materially
benefit members or activists.

Environmental groups have been most successful at

thwarting the expansion of the nuclear power industry.

That successful lobbying efforts by consumer groups benefits all consumers, and not just
group members, is an example of

a free-rider problem

Organizations seeking a collective good that may not benefit them directly are called

public interest lobbies.

The ________ is the oldest and largest of the African-American groups which have fought for
equality at the polls, in housing, on the job, in education, and in all other facets of American

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

The Fair Share program is an effort by the

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to negotiate agreements
with businesses to increase minority hiring and the use of minority contractors.

The National Organization for Women

now works for the enactment of individual statutes (laws) to protect womenʹs rights
rather than a constitutional amendment.

In addition to fighting segregation and discrimination, civil rights interest groups have also
focused on

broader economic problems.

The ________ movement was spurred by a single person: Ralph Nader.


Common Cause is an example of

a public interest lobby

An example of a public interest group is

Common Cause.

According to Robert Salisbury, the increase in lobbying activity has resulted in

less clout overall for interest groups.

The growth of both interest groups and the scope of government over the past several decades

A) the former increasing the latter.
B) the latter increasing the former.

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