World History Pattern of Interactions Chapter 7
Terms in this set (47)
Great military leader who assembled an army and defeated the Nanda King. He captured the throne. This began the Maurya empire.
Chandragupta seized all land from Magadha to the Indus.
Selecus inherited part of Alexander the Great's empire. He wanted to reestablish Macedonian control over the Indus Valley. Chandragupta fought for control of this area and won unifying North India politically for the first time.
High Taxes----> Huge Army
To win wars of conquest, Chandragupta raised a huge army and paid for it by levying high taxes. Farmers had to pay half of the value of their crops to Chandragupta's government..
Member of priestly caste who wrote Arthasastra- a book on how to run the empire. The methods of leadership included spying on people in the empire and assassinating them. Highly bureaucratic government which divided the empire into four provinces led by princes. Each province was then divided into smaller districts for the purpose of collecting taxes and enforcing the law.
had gold covered pillars, fountains, and imposing thrones.
Chandragupta's grandson- brought Mauryan empire to its greatest heights.
Asoka promoted Buddhism. He felt sorrow after many people were killed in Kalinga after a battle. This led him to study Buddhism.
Acceptance of people who held different religious beliefs. Edicts promised that Asoka would treat subjects fairly and humanely- others stated he would practice religious toleration.
Asoka had extensive roads built throughout India so he could visit the far corners of India. He improved the roads so his officials could travel easily and this improved communications throughout the vast empire. Every nine miles there were wells and rest houses.
Asoka Death = Trouble in the Empire
After Asoka's death there was no leader to take over. Regional leaders tried to gain indepence. Central India broke away.
Came after Asoka died. They profited from trade between North and South India, Rome, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia. North India was flooded with new people looking to get away from political instability elsewhere in Asia.
Waves of Refugees
People from Greece, Persia, and Central Asia flooded Northern India and disrupted their society, but also brought new languages and culture to Northern India.
People who lived in Southern India and were often at war with each other and others. They had never been invaded by the Chandragupta empire.
Chandra Gupta (Beginning of GUPTA EMPIRE)
Next strong leader to emerge in the state of Magadha. No relation to Chandragupta Mauya. Great flowering of culture- especially emergence Hinduism.
Great King of Kingss
Chandra Gupta's title.
Son of Chandra Gupta. Loved the arts but was warlike and led through 40 years of conquest, expanding the empire.
Gupta Era (Chandra and Samudra's rule)
First period of time where historians recorded facts about life in India. People lived in small villages, majority were farmers, craftspeople and merchants worked in other areas with shops on street level and they lived in rooms above.
Families led by eldest male. Members of family worked together to raise crops. Water was taxed so they had to pay taxes to irrigate their crops.
Southern India- Tamil Groups were headed by mothers. Property and sometimes the throne was passed through females.
Chandra Gupta II
Revered because he conquered and added land to the empire. Practiced diplomatic negotiations and marriage alliances.
Reign of Chandra Gupta, Samudra Gupta, and Chandra Gupta II
This was a time of great achievement in the arts, religious thought, and science.
Buddhism and Hinduism
India's two main faiths.
polytheistic, but there are 3 main gods- Brahma- creator of the world, Vishnu - preserver of the world; Shiva- destroyer of the world ; Changed in response to the popularity of Buddhism. Vishnu and Shiva were favorites for Indians. As Hinduism became more personal, its popularity grew.
Nirvana- a state of peace achieved by rejecting the sensory world and embracing spirituality. Buddhism taught others not to worship him, but they started to anyway. Buddhism allowed for people to convert and join the religion. Evolved into a religion that offered salvation. 2 different types of worship- one stuck more strictly to Buddha's teachings.
stone structures built on mounds that are built on top of holy objects in the ground. Wealthy Buddhist merchants who wanted to do good deeds paid for stupas to be constructed.
one of India's greatest writers. Most famous play was called Shukuntala.
India had a period of high productivity in literature, art, science, and mathematics. Drama was popular,
Trade spurred the advance of astronomy because sailors used stars to help them figure out their position at sea.
Greek invaders gave India ideas on how to keep time. (Calendar, 7-day week, divide day into hours).
Modern numerals, zero, and decimal system invented in India.
Two important medical guides that described disease and cures were written.
India was rich in resources and trader for thousands of years, it was expanded over time. After they found out about the Silk Roads that went from China to Rome, Indians made good profits by acting as middle-men. For example, Indian traders would buy items from China and sell them, at a profit, to travelers from Rome. This way, Roman travelers would not have to go all the way to China.
Sea Trade- India
Sea trade increased. Again Indian's acted as middlemen buying items (spices, etc.) from China to sell to Romans. Indians also got items from Arabia and other places.
Increased trade led to the development of banking in India. Bankers lent money to merchants and charged interest. The amount of interest was based on how dangerous trading on the seas was at the time.
Ruled for over 400 years. Influenced China strongly- even today. Established central government. Hundreds of local provincials called commandeers reported to the central gov.
Leader of the Han Dyn. that lowered taxes and softened the harsh that the gov. had. He brought peace and stability to China and people like it.
Liu Bang's wife who gained throne after his death. She named her infants as emperors but she had the power.
The emperor would pick his favorite wife to take power upon his death so the wives and their families often plotted. These plots and drama often took focus off of running the country.
Liu Bang's great-grandson. Expanded the empire through war. As a result, he was known as the "Marshall Emperor."
Fierce nomads who were enemies during the Han Dyn. They raided villages, stole crops, and killed. The Han Dyn. often tried to get them to stop by offering alcohol, silk, rice, and money. They often took these things and continued the raids anyway.
Wudi Defeated Xiongu
Made the Xiongu retreat and Wudi's troops took over their pasture. However, nomadic raiders continued to cause trouble for most of China's later history.
Wudi Colonizes Land
Set up Chinese colonies into present day Vietnam and Korea.
Highly Structured Society
Han Dynasty China was structured. People believed that the emperor had divine powers. If he ruled well then China was happy. If not there were earthquakes, etc.
Many levels of government. People were highly taxed to pay for government. Farmers owed a certain amount of their crops. Peasants owed a month's worth of labor. The Great Wall was build with this labor- so were roads.
Government workers took exams for jobs- the tests were on their knowledge of Confucianism. Chinese rulers often rewarded loyal followers with government jobs.
Taught that gentlemen should practice "reverence, generosity, truthfulness, diligence, and kindness." Wudi wanted these qualities in gov. workers so he set up a school for government workers to study Confucius' works.