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38 terms

Earth Science - layers, rocks, and soil (Standard S6E5-S6E6)

Vocabuarly Practice for CRCT
STUDY
PLAY
Density
amount of mass in a certain amount of volume (ex. which is more dense? a coke can filled with feathers or a coke can filled with rocks?)
Core
Earth's inner most layer - made mostly of the elements iron and nickel
Mantle
layer that surrounds the core - makes up most of Earth's mass
Convection current
created by hot materials rising, cooling off, and then sinking back down
Lithosphere
outer zone of Earth - made of the crust and upper mantle - broken into tectonic plates
Asthenosphere
slowly flowing layer of rock under the lithosphere
Theory of Continental Drift
Proposed by Alfred Wegener who claimed that the continents were once part of one giant land mass called Pangea which later broke apart causing their present positions
Plate tectonics
outer part of Earth is divided into several distinct segments that occasionally shift
Convergent boundaries
where tectonic plates come together
Divergent boundaries
where tectonic plates move apart
Transform boundaries
where tectonic plates slide past each other
Minerals
solids that occur naturally and have a definite structure and chemical composition
Rocks
groups of minerals packed tightly together
Igneous
"fire formed" - formed from cooling magma and lava
Metamorphic
rocks that change - "morph" - due to heat and pressure
Sedimentary
rocks that are formed from bits of weathered rock or remains of tiny organisms being pressed together into a solid mass
Rock cycle
describes the interactions that form and change rocks over time
Fossil
remains or traces of past life
Fossil Record
history of earth's life as shown by fossils
Mechanical weathering
physical breakdown of rock into smaller pieces; may be broken down by wind, water, ice, etc.
Chemical weathering
change in the chemical composition of rock that breaks it down (ex. acid rain)
Erosion
transportation of sediment from one place to another by wind, flowing water, ice, and gravity
Sediments
particles of rock broken down by weathering
Deposition
dropping of sediment by flowing water, wind or glaciers when their movement slows
Dune
mound of sand deposited by wind erosion
Glacier
huge mass of slowly moving ice
Landslide
occurs when gravity pulls huge amounts of rocks and sediment down a hill or mountain
Resources
things made by nature that people need or use
Nonrenewable resources
resources that cannot be replaced or reproduced in a lifetime (ex. fossil fuels, coal, petroleum, natural gas)
Renewable resources
resources that can be replaced in a relatively short period of time (ex. plants, animals, water)
Fossil fuels
source of energy that comes from the remains of plants and animals that died millions of years ago (ex. natural gas, petroleum, and coal)
Soil
constantly changing resource made from rock and mineral fragments, humus, air and water
Humus
decayed plant and animal material in the ground
Texture of soil
refers to how it feels and the size of its rock particles
Pollution
the contamination of soil, water, or air with harmful substances
Global warming
increase in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere
Conservation
the protection of resources from pollution or damage
Recycling
using raw material more than once to reduce waste