US/VA History Warm-Ups 1-273
Terms in this set (274)
What were the characteristics of early exploration and settlements in New England?
Puritans seeking freedom from religious persecution , formed a "covenant community" based on the principles of the Mayflower Compact and Puritan religious beliefs , were intolerant of those not sharing their religion, sought economic opportunity , practiced a form of direct democracy through town meetings.
What were the characteristics of early exploration and settlements in the Middle Atlantic?
settled chiefly by English, Dutch, and German-speakers seeking religious freedom and economic opportunity.
What were the characteristics of early exploration and settlements in southern colonies?
Sought economic opportunities. Poor English immigrants also came seeking better lives as small farmers or artisans and settled in the Shenandoah Valley or western Virginia, or as indentured servants who agreed to work on tobacco plantations for a period of time to pay for passage to the New World.
What were the characteristics of early exploration and settlements in Jamestown?
established in 1607 as a business venture, first permanent English settlement in North America. House of Burgesses, 1619, first elected assembly in the New World. It has operated continuously and is the General Assembly of Virginia.
What were the characteristics of interactions among Europeans, Africans and American Indians in the colonies?
Often led to violent conflicts with the Indians, Indians lost territory and died of European diseases. France didn't want large scale Immigration, led to more cooperation with Indians
The growth of what kind of economy based on large landholdings in the Southern colonies and in the Caribbean led to the introduction of slavery in the New World?
When were the first Africans brought against their will to Jamestown to work on tobacco plantations?
What were the economic characteristics of the New England colonies?
based on shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering, small-scale subsistence
farming, and eventually, manufacturing. The colonies prospered,
reflecting the Puritans' strong belief in the values of hard work and
What were the economic characteristics of the Middle colonies?
based on shipbuilding, small-scale farming, and trading. Cities
such as New York and Philadelphia began to grow as seaports
and/or commercial centers.
What were the economic characteristics of the Southern colonies?
based on large plantations that grew "cash crops" (tobacco, rice, indigo) for export. In the mountains and valleys, the economy was based on small-scale subsistence farming, hunting, and trading.
What characteristics applied to colonial life in all three regions?
A strong belief in private ownership of property and free enterprise
characterized colonial life everywhere.
What were the social characteristics of the New England colonies?
It based on religious standing, grew increasingly intolerant of dissenters who challenged the belief in the connection between religion & government. Rhode Island founded by dissenters.
What were the social characteristics of the Middle colonies?
Multiple religious groups, generally believed in religious tolerance, Quakers in Pennsylvania, Huguenots and Jews in New York, Presbyterians in New Jersey. more flexible social structures, Developed a middle class of skilled artisans, Entrepreneurs (business owners), and small farmers.
What were the social characteristics of the southern colonies?
had a social structure based on family status & ownership of land. Large landowners dominated government and society & maintained allegiance to Church of England and to Britain more than others.
What was the Great Awakening?
a religious movement that swept both Europe and the
colonies during the mid-1700s
What was the impact of the Great Awakening?
It led to the rapid growth of evangelical religions, such as Methodist and Baptist, and challenged the established religious and governmental orders. It laid one of the social foundations for the American Revolution.
Describe political life in the New England colonies?
used town meetings (an "Athenian" direct democracy model) in the operation of government
Describe political life in the Middle colonies?
incorporated a number of democratic principles that reflected the basic rights of Englishmen.
Describe political life in the Southern colonies?
maintained stronger ties with Britain, with planters playing leading roles in representative colonial legislatures
What did the growth of a plantation-based agricultural
economy in the hot, humid coastal lowlands of the Southern colonies require?
What were indentured servants?
poor persons from England, Scotland, or Ireland who agreed to
work on plantations for a period of time in return for their passage
from Europe or relief from debts.
How were indentured servants replaced?
What was the "Middle Passage"?
The journey of African slaves on cramped ships to the New World
What was the period in Europe during the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries which saw the development of new ideas about the rights of people and their relationship to their rulers?
What Enlightenment philosopher's ideas, more
than any other's, influenced the American belief in
What were his beliefs?
All people are free, equal, and have "natural rights"
of life, liberty, and property that rulers cannot take away.
Who wrote Common Sense?
What did "Common Sense" say?
It challenged the rule of the American colonies by the King of England.
What impact did "Common Sense" have on the
It contributed to a growing sentiment for independence from Great Britain
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
Whose ideas were reflected in the Declaration of Independence?
John Locke and Thomas Paine
What ideas were expressed in the Declaration of Independence?
All men are equal, have natural rights (Life, Liberty, Happiness), power is derived from the people, When government becomes destructive the people may abolish it.
What principles were expressed in the Declaration of Independence concerning Political Participation?
Extending the franchise, Upholding due process of law.
What principles were not expressed in the Declaration of Independence concerning Social Participation?
Abolishing slavery, extending civil rights to women and other groups.
What principles were expressed in the Declaration of
Independence concerning Economic Participation?
Regulating the free enterprise system, Promoting economic opportunity, Protecting property rights.
What led to the French & Indian War?
The rivalry in North America between Britain and France.
What was the result of the French & Indian War?
the Proclamation of 1763 and new taxes.
What was the Proclamation of 1763?
prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains.
What new taxes were passed in the colonies?
taxes on legal documents (the "Stamp Act"), tea, & sugar.
Why did Parliament pass these new taxes after the
to pay costs incurred during the French and Indian War.
What was the Boston Tea Party?
To protest the tax on tea, the Sons of Liberty dumped Tea of ships in Boston Harbor into the water.
What was the First Continental Congress?
A meeting of representatives from all of the colonies except Georgia.
Why was the First Continental Congress significant?
It was the first time most of the colonies had acted together.
What was the Boston Massacre?
British troops fired on anti-British demonstrators.
What were the first battles of the American Revolution?
Lexington and Concord
What were the characteristics of the Patriots?
Believed in complete independence from Britain Inspired by the ideas of Locke and Paine and words of Virginian Patrick Henry, Provided the troops for the American Army, led by Virginian George Washington.
What were the characteristics of the Loyalists?
Loyal to Britain because of cultural and economic ties, believed taxation of the colonies was justified to pay for British troops protecting American settlers from Indians.
What other name was used for the Loyalists?
What word describes the many colonists who tried to
stay as uninvolved in the war as possible?
What Diplomatic factors led to colonial victory?
Benjamin Franklin negotiated a Treaty of Alliance with France.
The war did not have popular support in Great Britain.
What Military factors led to colonial victory?
George Washington, general of the American army, avoided situations that threatened the destruction of his army, his
leadership kept the army together when defeat seemed inevitable.
the presence of the French army and navy at the Battle of Yorktown, ended the war with an American victory.
American political leaders, fearful of a powerful central government like Britain's, created what in
order to establish a new government?
The Articles of Confederation.
What weaknesses led to the creation of the new Constitution?
weak national government, Congress no power to tax or regulate commerce among the states, no common currency, each state one vote regardless of size, no executive or judicial branch.
What type of law did the Constitution make supreme?
How did the Constitution balance power between the large and small states?
by creating a Senate, where each state has two senators, and a
House of Representatives, where membership is based on
How many congressmen represent each state in the Senate?
How many congressmen represent each state in the House of Representatives?
membership is based on population.
Why was the Three-Fifths Compromise introduced?
To placate the Southern states by counting slaves as three-fifths of the population when determining representation in the United States House of Representatives.
How did the Constitution avoid making the central government too powerful?
by establishing three co-equal branches—with numerous checks and balances among them.
What branches of government were created by the
legislative, executive, and judicial
Who was the President of the Constitutional Convention?
Who is known as the "Father of the Constitution"?
What name was given to the plan of government
Which proposed a federal government of three separate
branches (legislative, executive, judicial) and became the
foundation for the structure of the new government?
The Virginia Plan
Who authored this plan?
Who authored the Bill of Rights?
What did the Virginia Declaration of Rights say?
Reiterated the notion that basic human rights should
not be violated by governments
Who wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights?
What did the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom say?
Outlawed the established church—that is, the practice of
government support for one favored church
Who wrote the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom?
What documents were consulted when drafting the
amendments that eventually became the United States Bill
Virginia Declaration of Rights &
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
What political group advocated the importance of a strong
What did they feel would be the primary benefit of this?
to promote economic development and public
What political group feared an overly powerful central
Who were the leading opponents of ratification of the Constitution?
Patrick Henry & George Mason
Controversy over the Federalists' support for the
Bank of the United States, the Jay Treaty, and the
undeclared war on France contributed to the emergence
of what organized opposition party?
Who were the leaders of this party?
Thomas Jefferson & James Madison
Who won the Presidential election of 1800?
Why was the election of 1800 significant?
Was the first American presidential election in which power was peacefully transferred from one political party to another
Who were the leaders of the Federalist party?
John Adams & Alexander Hamilton
Who supported the Federalist party?
bankers and business interests in the Northeast
Who supported the Democratic-Republican party?
farmers, artisans, and frontier settlers in the South
How did Chief Justice John Marshall contribute to the growth of the U. S. Supreme Court's
importance in relation to the other branches of the national government?
Doctrine of Judicial Review (Marbury v. Madison), Doctrine of Implied Powers (McCulloch v. Maryland), a broad national view of economics (Gibbons v. Ogden), these lead to the Supreme Court's authority to mediate disagreements between branches of governments, levels of government, and competing business interests.
What Thomas Jefferson purchase as doubled the size of the United States?
The Louisiana Territory
Who did he send to explore the new territories that lay west of the Mississippi River?
Lewis & Clark
What American Indian woman served as their guide
Who won the War of 1812?
The United States
The War of 1812 produced a claim to what Territory on the
The War of 1812 increased migration of American
settlers into Florida, which was later acquired by treaty
from what country?
Spain Adams-Onis Treaty
What stated that "The American continents should not
be considered for future colonization by any European
The Monroe Doctrine
What was the main motivation for settlers to move
west in the 1800s?
economic opportunity in the form of land to own and farm
What helped the growth of an industrial economy and
supported the westward movement of settlers?
The growth of railroads and canals
What invention led to the spread of the slavery-based
"cotton kingdom" in the Deep South?
Who invented it?
What led to the armed revolt against Mexican rule in
American migration into Texas
What was the battle in which a band of Texans fought
to the last man against a vastly superior force?
How did the Mexican War change the United States?
led to the acquisition of an enormous territory that
included the present-day states of California, Nevada,
Utah, Arizona, and parts of Colorado and New Mexico
What was the belief that the United States should stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific?
What name was given to the forced relocation of several
Indian tribes from the Atlantic Coast to Oklahoma?
The Trail of Tears
What were the causes of the War of 1812?
British interference with American shipping and western
What political party opposed "Mr. Madison's War" resulting in their own demise?
What were the characteristics of "the age of the common man"?
heightened emphasis on equality in political process for adult white males, the rise of interest group politics and sectional issues, changing style of campaigning increased voter participation
What President is known for personifying the "democratic spirit" of the age by challenging the economic elite?
What name was given to rewarding campaign supporters with public office ?
The Spoils System
What political parties appeared in the early 1800s to oppose the Democratic Party?
The Whigs and the Know-Nothings
What name was given to the bloody fighting in Kansas as pro- and anti-slavery forces battled each other?
What political party was formed in 1854 to oppose the Spread of slavery?
What allowed California to enter the country as a free state, while the new Southwestern territories acquired from Mexico would decide on their own?
Compromise of 1850
What repealed the Missouri Compromise line, giving people in Kansas and Nebraska the choice whether to allow slavery in their states or not?
What is the term that refers to the choice whether to allow slavery in a state or not ?
What name was given to the event where South Carolinians argued that sovereign states could
nullify the Tariff of 1832 and other acts of Congress. A union that allowed state governments to
invalidate acts of the national legislature could be dissolved by states seceding from the Union in
defense of slavery?
What was Andrew Jackson's response to the Nullification Crisis?
Jackson threatened to send federal troops to collect the
Who led slave revolts in Virginia that fed white Southerners' fears about slave rebellions and led to
harsh laws in the South against fugitive slaves?
Nat Turner and Gabriel Prosser
Who promoted the idea that the institution of slavery was a violation of Christian principles and argued for its abolition in The Liberator?
William Lloyd Garrison
What was the Seneca Falls Declaration?
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott used the Declaration of Independence as a model to draft this demand for rights for women
Who were the two main women who became involved in the women's suffrage movement before the Civil War and continued with the movement after the war?
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
What were the causes of the Civil War?
Sectional disagreements and debates over tariffs, extension of slavery into the territories, and the nature of the Union (states' rights)
Who wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin?
Harriet Beecher Stowe
What was the opening battle of the Civil War?
What was issued after the Battle of
Which battle is considered the turning point of the Civil War?
Where did General Lee surrender to Grant?
Who was the President of the U.S. during the Civil War?
Who was the President of the C.S.A during the Civil War?
What Union military commander, who won victories
over the South after several other Union commanders
Ulysses S. Grant
What Confederate general of the Army of Northern Virginia, who urged Southerners to accept defeat and unite as Americans again, when some Southerners wanted to fight on after Appomattox?
Robert E. Lee
Which former enslaved African American became a prominent abolitionist and who urged Lincoln to recruit former enslaved African Americans to fight in the Union
What claimed to free those slaves located in the "rebelling" states (Southern states that had seceded)?
What was the Emancipation Proclamation's impact on the war?
Made the abolition of slavery a Northern war aim, Discouraged any interference of foreign governments, Allowed for the enlistment of African American soldiers in the Union Army
What described the Civil War as a struggle to preserve a nation that was dedicated to the proposition that "all men are created equal" and that was ruled by a government
"of the people, by the people, and for the people."?
What was Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction?
He believed that Reconstruction was a matter of quickly restoring legitimate Southern state governments that were loyal to the Union.
Lincoln also believed that to reunify the nation, the federal government should not punish the South, but act "with malice towards none, with charity for all... to bind up the nation's wounds...."
What enabled Radical Republicans to influence the process of Reconstruction in a manner much more
punitive towards the former Confederate states?
The assassination of Lincoln
What group believed in aggressively guaranteeing voting and other civil rights to African Americans and
clashed repeatedly with Lincoln's successor as president, Andrew Johnson, over the issue of civil rights for freed
slaves, eventually impeaching him, but failing to remove him from office?
What were the three "Civil War Amendments" to the Constitution ?
13th Amendment: Slavery was abolished permanently in the United States,
14th Amendment: States were prohibited from denying equal rights under the law to any American, 15th Amendment: Voting rights were guaranteed regardless of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (former slaves).
What was the Compromise of 1877?
In return for support from Southern Democrats in the
electoral college vote, the Republicans agreed to end the
military occupation of the South
What were the postwar contributions of Ulysses S. Grant?
Urged radical Republicans not to be harsh with former
Confederates, Was elected president and served during most of Reconstruction, Advocated rights for the freedman, Opposed retribution directed at the defeated South
What were the postwar contributions of Robert E. Lee?
Urged Southerners to reconcile and rejoin the United States, Served as president of Washington College (Washington & Lee University today), Emphasized the importance of education to the nation's future
What were the postwar contributions of Frederick Douglas?
Supported full equality for African Americans, Advocated for the passage of the 14th and 15th Amendments, Encouraged federal government actions to protect the rights of freedmen in the South , Served as ambassador to Haiti and in the civil service
How did the Civil War affect the common soldier?
soldiers returned to find destroyed homes & poverty. Many lived with permanent disabilities.
What was the war's impact on women?
Managed homes and families with scarce resources
Often faced poverty and hunger Assumed new roles in agriculture, nursing, and war industries
What name was given to the era immediately before and after the Civil War, marked by long cattle drives for hundreds of miles over unfenced open land in
the West, the only way to get cattle to market?
The Era of the American Cowboys
What gave free public land in the western territories to settlers who would live on and farm the land?
Homestead Act of 1862
Prior to 1871, where did most immigrants come from?
Northern and western Europe
(Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden)
From 1871-1921, where did most immigrant come from?
Southern and Eastern Europe, and Asia
(Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, Hungary, Yugoslavia,
China & Japan)
What immigrant groups helped build the Transcontinental Railroad?
Irish and Chinese
What type of work did the Slavs, Italians and Poles often do?
coal mines of the East for low pay and dangerous
What name was given to the process of assimilating into American culture?
While often settling in ethnic neighborhoods in the growing cities, what served an essential role in the process of assimilating immigrants into American society?
What laws effectively cut off most immigration to America for the next several decades?
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the Immigration
Restriction Act of 1921
What emerged in the large cities that provided jobs,
but also caused workers' families to often live in harsh conditions, crowded into tenements and slums?
What caused housing shortages and the need for new public services, such as sewage and water systems and public transportation?
The rapid growth of cities
What was the first city to begin construction of a subway system around the turn of the twentieth century?
What were the main inventions/innovations between The Civil War and World War I?
Corporation(limited liability), Bessemer steel process,
Light bulb (Thomas Edison) and electricity as a source of power and light, Telephone(Alexander Graham Bell), Airplane (Wright brothers), Assembly-line manufacturing (Henry Ford)
Who were the main Industrial leaders between The Civil War and World War I?
Andrew Carnegie (steel), J. P. Morgan (finance),
John D. Rockefeller (oil), Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroads)
What were the main reasons for economic transformation between The Civil War and World War I?
Laissez-faire capitalism, increasing labor supply (from immigration and migration from farms), America's possession of a wealth of natural resources and navigable rivers
What laws forcing separation of the races in public places were passed after Reconstruction in many Southern States?
Jim Crow Laws
What Supreme Court case ruled that "separate but equal" did not
violate the 14th Amendment?
Plessy v. Ferguson
What was it called when African Americans began moving to Northern cities in search of jobs and to escape poverty and discrimination in the South?
The "Great Migration"
Who led an anti-lynching crusade and called on the
federal government to take action?
Ida B. Wells
Who believed the way to equality was through
vocational education and economic success; he
accepted social separation?
Booker T. Washington
Who believed that education was meaningless without equality. He supported political equality for African Americans by helping to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)?
What were the causes of the Progressive Movement?
Excesses of the Gilded Age (Income disparity, lavish lifestyles, Practices of robber barons), Working conditions for labor (Dangerous working conditions, Child labor, Long hours, low wages, no job security, no benefits, Company towns, Employment of women)
What were the goals of the Progressive Movement?
Government controlled by the people, Guaranteed economic opportunities through government regulation, Elimination of social injustices
What were the accomplishments of the Progressive Movement In local governments?
New forms of government (commissioner-style and city-manager-style) to meet needs of increasing urbanization
What were the accomplishments of the Progressive Movement In state governments?
Referendum, Initiative, Recall
What were the accomplishments of the Progressive Movement In elections?
Primary elections, Direct election of U.S. senators (17th Amendment), Secret ballot
What were the accomplishments of the Progressive Movement In child labor?
Muckraking literature describing abuses of child labor,
Child labor laws
What was the impact of the Progressive Movement on labor unions?
Organizations(Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor (Samuel Gompers), American Railway Union (Eugene V. Debs), International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union), Strikes (Haymarket Square Riot, Homestead
Strike, Pullman Strike), Gains (Limited work hours
Regulated working conditions)
What was the impact of the Progressive Movement on Antitrust laws?
Sherman Anti-Trust Act: Prevents any business structure that "restrains trade" (monopolies)
Clayton Anti-Trust Act: Expands Sherman Anti-Trust Act; outlaws price-fixing; exempts unions from Sherman Act
What was the impact of the Progressive Movement on Women's suffrage?
Was a forerunner of modern protest movement
Benefited from strong leadership (e.g., Susan B. Anthony)
Encouraged women to enter the labor force during World War I, Resulted in the 19th Amendment to the Constitution
How did the United States expand her influence in International markets?
Open Door Policy: Secretary of State John Hay proposed a policy that would give all nations equal trading rights in China. Dollar diplomacy: President Taft urged American banks and businesses to invest in Latin America. He promised that the United States would step in if unrest threatened their investments. Growth in international trade occurred from the late 1800's to World War I—
the first era of a true "global economy."
How did the United States expand her influence in Latin America?
Spanish American War, Puerto Rico was annexed by the United States, The United States asserted her right to intervene in Cuban affairs, Panama Canal, The United States encouraged Panama's independence from Colombia, The parties negotiated a treaty to build the canal.
How did the United States expand her influence in Asia and the Pacific?
Hawaii: U.S. efforts to depose Hawaii's monarchy; U.S. annexation of Hawaii; Philippines: Annexed after the Spanish American War;
Open Door Policy: Urged all foreigners in China to obey Chinese law, observe
How did World War I begin in Europe?
when Germany & Austria-Hungary went to war with Britain, France, and Russia
What was the official position of the U.S. when the war began?
What convinced the U.S. to enter the World War I?
continued German submarine warfare (violating freedom
of the seas) and American ties to Great Britain.
Who wanted to "make the world safe for democracy?"
What did the U.S. bring to the war that tipped the balance of the war in favor of the Allies?
military resources of soldiers and war materials
What was the name of Woodrow Wilson's peace plan?
What did Woodrow Wilson plan on eliminating with his peace plan?
The causes of war
What was contained in the "Treaty of Versailles?"
The French and English insisted on punishment of Germany, A League of Nations was created, National boundaries were redrawn, creating many new nations.
What were the key points of Wilson's plan?
Self-determination, Freedom of the seas, League of Nations, Mandate system
What country did not ratify the Treaty due to objections to foreign policy decisions being made by an international organization?
What new forms of mass media and communications promoted challenges to traditional values during the 1920s?
Radio: Broadcast jazz and Fireside Chats
Movies: Provided escape from Depression-era realities
Newspapers and magazines: Shaped cultural norms and sparked fads
What challenges to traditional values arose during the 1920s?
Traditional religion: Darwin's Theory, the Scopes Trial
Traditional role of women: Flappers, 19th Amendment
Open immigration: Rise of newKu Klux Klan (KKK)
Prohibition: Smuggling alcohol and speakeasies
What caused the Stock Market crash of 1929?
Business was booming, but investments were made with borrowed money (over speculation); There was excessive expansion of credit; Business failures led to bankruptcies; Bank deposits were invested in the market; When the market collapsed, the banks ran out of money.
What were the consequences of the Stock Market crash of 1929?
Clients panicked, attempting to withdraw their money from the banks, but there was nothing to give them. There were no new investments.
What were the causes of the Great Depression?
The stock market crash of 1929 and collapse of stock prices; Federal Reserve's failure to prevent widespread collapse of the nation's banking system in the late 1920s and early 1930s, leading to severe contraction in the nation's supply of money in circulation; High protective tariffs that produced retaliatory tariffs in
other countries, strangling world trade (Tariff Act of 1930, popularly called the Hawley-Smoot Act)
What was the impact of the Great Depression?
Unemployment and homelessness; Collapse of the financial system (bank closings); Decline in demand for goods; Political unrest (growing militancy of
labor unions); Farm foreclosures and migration
What was the name of Franklin Roosevelt's plan to address the Depression?
The New Deal
What relief measures provided direct payment to
people for immediate help?
Works Progress Administration—WPA
What Recovery programs were designed to bring the
nation out of the depression over time?
Agricultural Adjustment Administration—AAA
What Reform measures corrected unsound banking
and investment practices ?
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation—FDIC
What program offered safeguards for workers ?
Social Security Act
How did World War II begin?
Hitler's invasion of Poland in 1939
During the first two years of World War II, what was the official position of the U.S.?
What famous air battle stopped the advance of Germany in Western Europe?
Battle of Britain
In mid-1941, Hitler invaded what former partner?
The Soviet Union
What gave the president authority to sell or lend equipment to countries to defend themselves against the
The Lend-Lease Act
In the 1930s, what country/countries did Japan invade and brutalize?
Manchuria and China
How did the U.S. respond to Japanese aggression in Asia?
An embargo on exports of oil and steel
Where did Japan carry out an air attack on
December 7, 1941?
What did President Roosevelt call this day?
"A date that will live in infamy."
What was Germany's response to the attack?
Declared war on the U.S.
What was the primary military strategy of America
and her allies?
"Defeat Hitler First"
What was the American military strategy in the Pacific?
Where did Japan carry out an air attack on December 7, 1941?
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
Why did Germany want to control the Soviet Union?
To capture the oil fields
What country did Germany hope to force out of the
war through a bombing campaign and submarine warfare
before America's industrial and military strength could
turn the tide?
Great Britain (The United Kingdom)
What did Japan hope would be the result from
invading the Philippines, Indonesia, Australia and Hawaii?
that America would then accept Japanese predominance
in Southeast Asia and the Pacific
What battle in Africa saw German forces threatening to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal were defeated by the British. This defeat prevented Hitler from gaining access to Middle Eastern oil supplies and attacking the Soviet Union from the south?
What European battle saw Hundreds of thousands of German soldiers were killed or captured in a months-long siege of the Russian city of Stalingrad. This defeat prevented Germany from seizing the Soviet oil fields and turned the tide against Germany in the east?
American and Allied troops under Eisenhower landed in German-occupied France on June 6, What was this called?
Normandy landings (D-Day)
What battle in the Pacific saw American naval forces defeat a much larger Japanese force, ending the Japanese threat to Hawaii?
the Battle of Midway (termed the "Miracle at Midway")
What two battles in the Pacific brought American forces closer than ever to Japan?
Iwo Jima and Okinawa
President Harry Truman ordered the use of atomic bombs on what two cities forcing the Japanese to surrender?
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
What minority groups served in segregated units in
World War II?
African Americans and Asian Americans
Which two all-minority military units became famous for the high number of decorations they received?
Tuskegee Airmen and the Nisei regiments
What minority language was used for communication codes and was impossible for the Japanese to break?
Following World War I, what attempted to ensure the
humane treatment of prisoners of war by establishing
rules to be followed by all nations?
The Geneva Convention
What famous incident occurred when American POWs
suffered brutal treatment by the Japanese after surrender of the Philippines?
Bataan Death March
What word means, The systematic and purposeful
destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group?
What groups were targets of the Holocaust?
Jews, Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, "Undesirables" (homosexuals, the mentally ill, political dissidents)
Where were Nazi leaders (and others) convicted of war crimes, emphasized individual responsibility for actions during a war, regardless of orders received, and led to increased demand for a Jewish homeland?
The Nuremberg Trials
During World War II, was used to maintain supply of essential products to the war effort?
What was created to finance World War II?
War bonds and income tax
What group increasingly participated in the workforce to
replace men serving in the military?
What group migrated to cities in search of jobs in war plants?
What group was placed in concentration camps
in the U.S. during World War II?
What effect did World War II have on Germany?
Germany was partitioned into East and West Germany.
West Germany became democratic and resumed self-
government after a few years of American, British, and
French occupation. East Germany remained under the
domination of the Soviet Union and did not adopt
What name was given to the "containment of Communism" was a guiding principle of American foreign policy throughout the Cold War, not to roll it back, but to keep it from spreading and to resist communist aggression into other countries?
The Truman Doctrine
What was formed as a defensive alliance among the United States and western European countries to prevent a Soviet invasion of Western Europe?
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
The Marshall Plan
What alliance was formed by the Soviets and their allies in Eastern Europe?
The Warsaw Pact
The communist nations of China and the Soviet Union eventually became rivals for territory and diplomatic influence. Which U.S. President exploited this split?
What policy did President Eisenhower implement to deter any nuclear strike by the Soviets?
What wars reflected the Cold War policy of containment?
The Korean War, The Vietnam War
What was the policy of withdrawing American troops and
replacing them with South Vietnamese forces while maintaining military aid to the South Vietnamese called?
What forced President Nixon out of office?
The Watergate Scandal
What was the event in which the Soviet Union stationed
missiles near the coast of Florida, resulting in President Kennedy ordering the Soviets to remove their missiles, for several days leaving the world was on the brink of nuclear war?
The Cuban Missile Crisis
Who was convicted of spying for the Soviet Union increasing
domestic fears of communism?
Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Who played on American fears of communism by recklessly accusing many American governmental officials and other citizens of being communists, based on flimsy or no evidence?
Senator Joseph McCarthy
The making of false accusations based on rumor or guilt by association became known as what?
How did the heavy military expenditures throughout the Cold War benefit
Virginia's economy proportionately more than any other state?
We're home to several large naval and air bases, the
Pentagon and numerous private companies that contract
with the military.
What did President Kennedy pledge in his inaugural address?
the United States would "pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty." In the same address, he also said, "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country."
Which World War II veteran, was assassinated in 1963 in Dallas, Texas, in an
event that shook the nation's confidence and began a period of internal strife and
John F. Kennedy
How did internal problems affect the collapse of communism and the Soviet Union?
Increasing Soviet military expenses to compete with the United States, Rising nationalism in Soviet republics, Fast-paced
reforms—market economy, Economic inefficiency, Gorbachev's glasnost and perestroika (openness and economic restructuring)
What was President Ronald Reagan's role in the collapse of the Soviet Union?
Challenged moral legitimacy of the Soviet Union, for example, in a speech at the Berlin Wall ("Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!") Increased United States military and economic pressure on the Soviet Union
How did the United States redirect her goals and policies in the post-Cold War era?
Foreign aid, Humanitarian aid, and Support for human rights
How did President George H.W. Bush shape American policy?
Fall of communism in Eastern Europe, Reunification of Germany, Collapse of Yugoslavia, Breakup of the Soviet state, Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991, First war in which American women served in a combat role, Operation Desert Storm
How did President William J. Clinton shape American policy?
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Full diplomatic relations with Vietnam Lifting of economic sanctions against South Africa when her government ended the policy of apartheid,
NATO action in former Yugoslavia
How did President George W. Bush shape American policy?
Terrorists attacks on United States soil on 9/11/2001, War in Afghanistan, War in Iraq
What was the significance of Brown v. Board of Education?
Supreme Court decision that segregated schools are unequal and must desegregate; Included Virginia case
What roles did Thurgood Marshall and Oliver Hill play in the demise of segregated schools?
Thurgood Marshall: NAACP Legal Defense Team
Oliver Hill: NAACP Legal Defense Team in Virginia
How did Virginia respond to the Brown v. Board of Education decision?
Massive Resistance: Closing some schools
Establishment of private academies
White flight from urban school systems
What group is known for challenging segregation in the courts?
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
What event inspired it's participants with the "I Have a Dream" speech given by Dr. Martin
Luther King, Jr., helped influence public opinion to support civil rights legislation, and demonstrated
the power of nonviolent, mass protest?
1963 March on Washington
What legislation advanced the cause of Civil Rights In the 1960s?
Civil Rights Act of 1964 & the Voting Rights Act of 1865
What did this Civil Rights Act of 1964 say?
Civil Rights Act: prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, or national origin; The act desegregated public accommodations; President Lyndon B. Johnson played an important role in the passage
What did the Voting Rights Act of 1865 say?
Voting Rights Act: The act outlawed literacy tests; Federal registrars were sent to the South to register voters; The act resulted in an increase in African American voters; President Johnson played an important role in
the passage of the act.
How has the membership of the United States Supreme Court changed to become more diverse over time?
included women and minorities, such as Sandra Day O'Connor, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and Clarence Thomas.
How have the decisions of the United States Supreme Court
promoted equality and extended civil liberties?
protects the individual rights enumerated in the Constitution of the
United States; identifies a constitutional basis for a right to privacy
that is protected from government interference; invalidates
legislative acts and executive actions that the justices agree
exceed the authority granted to government officials by the
Constitution of the United States.
What factors have drawn immigrants to the United States?
Political freedom & Economic opportunity
What immigrant groups account for the bulk of immigration?
Asian and Latin American
What issues are currently being debated related to immigration to the United States?
Strain on government services, Filling low-paying jobs in the United States, Border issues, Pathway to citizenship
Bilingual education, Increasing cultural diversity
What are some contributions made by immigrants?
Diversity in music, the visual arts, and literature
Roles in the labor force Achievements in science, engineering, and other fields
Who was the first American to orbit the Earth?
Who was the first person to step onto the moon's surface. He proclaimed, "That's one small step for a man; one giant leap for mankind?"
Who was the first female American astronaut?
What improved technology and media have brought about better access to communication and information for businesses and individuals in both urban and rural
Areas resulting in many more Americans having access to global information and viewpoints?
Space exploration, Space shuttle, Mars rover, Voyager missions, Hubble telescope, Communications, Satellites, Global positioning system (GPS), Personal communications devices, Robotics
What changes have occurred in work, school, and health care in recent decades?
Telecommuting, Online course work, Growth of service industries, Breakthroughs in medical research, including improved medical diagnostic and imaging technologies, Outsourcing and offshore businesses
For what did President Reagan and the conservative Republicans advocate?
tax cuts, transfer of responsibilities to state governments,
appointment of judges/justices who exercised "judicial restraint," reduction in the number and scope of government programs and regulations, and strengthening of the American military.
How did the "Reagan Revolution" extend beyond his tenure in office?
the election of his vice president, George H. W. Bush, the election of a centrist Democrat, William J. Clinton, the Republican sweep of congressional elections and statehouses in the 1990s, the election of George W. Bush as president.
What are the roles that government plays in the United States economy?
the Federal Reserve: Monetary policy decisions control the supply of money and credit to expand or contract economic growth; the president and Congress: Fiscal policy decisions determine levels of government taxation and spending; government regulates the economy.
What role has the United States played in a world confronted by international terrorism?
Heightened security at home (Patriot Act) & Diplomatic and military initiatives