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Duke of Orleans was a collateral relative of the Bourbons and was suggested by the aging LaFayette as suitable replacement for Chas X. Established July Monarchy - became known as Citizen King - had amiable bourgeois image - stark contrast to Chas X. Would reign from 1830 - 48.
Legal country - or how France was now finally seen by those landowners to whom July Monarchy was the stopping place of political progress. To others, to radical democrats, it would prove to be a disappointment.
Tory Reforms of the 1820s
AFter the initial reaction to Napoleon Wars, the Tories under Canning and Robert Peel began loosening up and became more sensitive to the need of the British business class and the doctrines of liberal reforms became set. Included: reducing of tariffs, liberalizing Navigation Acts, loosening restrictions on skilled labor movt., encouraging free trade, repealing the Test Act, establishing a police force, etc.
Catholic Emancipation Act
Of 1829. One of the ToryReforms. Extended the right ot vote to Roman Catholics. Could also hold Public Office henceforth. Repeal of Test Act was the year before in 1828. Non-conformists (Puritans) also no longer barred.
Duke of Wellington
Prime Minister of England, 1828 to 1830. Tory but very reactionary. No in favor of reforms and made it difficult for tory reformers to get more done. But Tories lost in election of 1830 to Whigs. New Whig govt under Earl Grey then introduced the Reform Bill of 1832 which extended the franchise to the middle class. Duke of W had held tories back from championing reform.
Reform Bill of 1832
Very limited suffrage before this(about 5%). Squirearchy meant Parliament was not truly representative of English people. Districts not been amended since middle ages. Many undergone outward migration and had very few constituents +> Rotten Boros. Some were controlled by local landowners -> Pocket Boros. Earl Grey's Reform Bill of 1832 was passed over objection of Lords in House of Lords (Parliament Bicameral - Houses of Commons and Lords). King threatened to create many new Lords if sitting Lords in House of Lords did not pass bill. So they passed it. Provisions were...
1. Rotten and Pocket Boros dissolved
2. New Boros created in industrial areas where population had increased
3. Right to vote extended to middle class men
BUT PROPERTY QUALIFICATIONS CONTINUED TO BAR WORKING CLASS MEN FROM VOTING
HOWEVER, IT DID REPRESENT A SHIFT IN POLITICAL POWER FROM THE LANDED ARISTOCRACY TO THE MIDDLE CLASS. SQUIREARCHY NO LONGER DOMINATES.
Municipal Corporations Act
1835-Second only to Reform Bill of 1832 in importance. Modernized local govt in English cities. Broke up local oligarchies, established uniform electoral and administrative machinery and made it more effective in dealing with the new urban problems brought on by industrialization and urbanization.
Landed gentleman, Tory, Seventh Earl of Shaftesbury. Publicized social evils of industrialization. Pushed, along with a few humanitarian industrialists, for reform such as the Factory Act of 1833.
Factory Act of 1833
Forbade labor of children less than 9 yeasrs old. Was the first effective piece of legislation regulating labor conditions because it provided for inspectors to enforce it.
Mines Act of 1842
Significant regulation in coal mines in Britain. Forbade employment underground of women and girls and boys under 10.
Ten Hours Act of 1847
Limited labor of women and children in all industrial establishments to 10 hours per day. Thereafter work of men seemed to limit to same. The liberal Quaker, John Bright, criticized the act because he believed in laissez-faire and saw act as "a delusion practised on the working class."
Anti Corn Law League
1838 formed. Was a Whig-liberal-radical combo of interests. Wage earners objected to Corn Laws because food prices were high. Industrialists objected because it caused wage inflation. League organized like a political party. The famine in Ireland provided the final push. Ireland needed to import grain since potato harvest had failed and ppl were starving. Finally, the Tories under Sir Robert Peel repealed the Corn Laws.
Flamboyant, Anglo-Irish Whig aristocrat. Was P.M. in Britain in the mid century. British bulldog in defence of British name (ex. Don Pacifico incident in Greece, Arrow with China). Also supported independence movts - including Confeds in Am Civil War.
Changing nature of class interests. 1830s on. Formerly incontrast to nobility, not more in contrast to interests of working class. More from perspective of employer than as group ignored or abused by govt. To some the term was derogatory - implying uncultured, money oriented.
France, 1830 to 1848(Louis Philippe). Only about 1/30 adult males had vote. Reflected the "stake in society" theory - that those should govern who have something to lose. Less landed aristocracy influence in governmetn, less interest in govt. Led to more abuse of labor.
Of economics. Teaching Iron Law of Wages. Telling working class that only way to improve conditions is to become bourgeoise. Said working class wages should remain low.
Poor Law of 1834
Corrected some evils of old system but nothing on unemployment. To get relief must enter Poor House where gender segretation - break up families. Dismal conditions - "Bastilles for the working class"(Oliver Twist). Working class resented the notion of labor market.
A working class group organised to achieve political reforms to include WC in govt.
Only a few were socialists but most were anti-capitalists. 1838 Charter called for:
1. Annual Elections
2. Universal Adult Male Suffrage
3. Secret Ballot
4. Equal Electoral Districts
5. Abolition of Property Qualification for MPs
6. Salaries for MPs
1 million signed the petition. Held a convention in 1839. Group of "physical force" Chartists provoked riots. Authorities quelled them. Second petition in 1842 with 3 million signatures. Still rejected by House of Commons because many viewed it as threat to property. Movt died down but popular agitation and working class grievances led to Mines Act of 1842 nd Ten Hours Act of 1847. Since Charter idea hadn't worked, labor looks to unions instead. Note : All but 1 of these reforms were,in time, established.
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