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System used in west Europe for the political and economic relations between a peasant laborer and their landlord


Majority of the people. Lived on manors. Agricultural workers who were bound to the land and had to give the landlord part of their goods. In return they got some protection which included justice from the landlords. Hereditary.


Plow created in the 9th century that was much more technological than the previous one. Used a curved iron plate which allowed a better and deeper turning of the soil.

Three-field system

Created in the 9th century to improve productivity. In the plan only a third of the land was left unplanted to regain its fertility.


Germanic King, No fool-->converted to Christianity--> gained support of Catholic Church, Created very powerful kingdom, united franks, spread Christianity through force


Ruling family that took over the Franks monarchy. Located in northern France, Belgium, and western Germany. Two famous carolingean rulers are Charles Martel, the hammer, and Charlemagne


Carolingean ruler who in credited for establishing a fairly big empire in France and Germany. This happened around 800 CE. He also revived church based education and the area's intellectual ability began to grow
Success-->Revived Greek and Roman learning, expanded religion, very religious, patron of the arts, alliance with pope--> named emperor


A system that Europe had began to follow. Helped to connect the military elites or landlords to fighting. The landlords were the ones who could afford the weaponry and horses. In the beginning was very local, was boosted under Charlemagne. It inhibited the development of strong central states but it reduced local warfare
-Decentralized political system forcused on defense (war)
-Agrarian Economy-not a lot of trade because roads were dangerous
-Hierarchal Social Structure
-Culture permeated by military and a religious preoccupation with death


The less strong lords. Were helped by the stronger lords. In return they had to provide their lords military service, goods or payments and advice.

William the Conqueror

Duke of Normandy who expanded and feudalism to England. He had the Great Lords of England's loyalty and gave them estates in exchange for military service. Also had sheriffs to supervise administration of justice. He basically took feudalism and created a centralized government with standardized national laws.

Magna Carta

Otherwise known as the Great Charter. Signed b y King John from England. Purpose was to confirm feudal rights against monarchical claims. In it King John promised to keep order and restraint when dealing with nobles and church officials. He would get permission from them before implementing things on the society.


Created in the 13th century during a time of feudal balance. They would not longer represent individuals, instead they would represent a whole group. Not just any group they would represent nobles and the church. First English parliament was created in 1265.

Hundred Years War

A battle that began in the 14th century. Was between France's and England's national monarchies. They were fighting over the land in France that was owned by the English kind and over the rights of the feudal system


Germanic people from Scandinavia who had great ships and were able to settle into France (9th C) in area that is today Normandy. Converted to Christianity


From western Asia, moved in Europe and settled in Hungary (9th C), very disruptive until defeated at Battle of Lechfeld in 955, Converted to Christianity


Late 7th and 8th century raided Southern coasts of Europe all the way to Southern France until defeated there in the battle of Tours (732) by Charles Martel="The Hammer", retreated to Spain


Farmed, made tooks, made weapons, gave vassal 1/3 of produce in exchange for protection and use of mill. Mill grounded grain


Land that is more than one fief large


Seat of the government-political and military, where everyone went for safety

Carolingean Renaissance

A revival of learning within the kingdom, School were established and manuscripts were copied. Greak and Roman learning, arts

Carolingean Miniscule

The writing style that used lower case letters and was based off of Roman writing


Ruled little government, dispensed justice, collected fees, raised troops, minted coins

Charles Martel

Mayor of the Palace (a.k.a Charles the Hammer) defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Tours in 732. His success led to the Carolingeans taking over

Manorial System

-economic system on which feudalism is based
-Agricultural estate run by lord and worked peasants
-Basic unit of rural organization in the Middle Ages
-Grew out of chaotic conditions in the Middle Ages
-Formation of serfs

Feudal contract

-unwritten rules to govern relations
lord-vassal vassal-serf

William of Normandy

Crowned King of England in 1066 and created a new England by combining Anglo-Saxon and Norman institutions; created a strong centralized monarchy (1066 crowned King of England after Battle of Hastings-->birth of England

Henry II

Strengthened the power of the royal courts to expand his power, established common law (married Eleanor of Aquitaine, gained control of southern France)

John I

nobles resented ongoing growth of king's power. Was forced to sign the Magna Carta ("Great Charter") in 1215

Edward I

development of English Parliament (1295). House of Lords and House of Commons

Hugh Capet

new king after the division of the Carolingean Empire. Established the Capetian Dynasty

King Philip II Augustus

expansion because of land acquisitions from war with England=extended power

Philip IV the Fair

strengthened the monarchy by creating an effective royal bureaucracy. Estates General by the end of the 13th century. France was the largest, wealthiest, and best-governed monarchial state in all of Europe

Otto I

crowned Emperor of all the Romans (title was last used by Charlemagne). Established the "New Roman Empire"

Henry IV

struggle between Church and State weakened king's ability to control clergy

Hohenstaufen Dynasty

Frederick I and Frederick II- tried to create a new kind of empire by getting revenues from Italy (center of Roman Empire), but the Pope refused. Constant struggles=decentralized state

Asiatic Nomads

the Huns,Bulgars, Avars, and Magyars pushed their way westward

Slavic division

originally a single people, gradually divided into western, southern, and eastern


Polish and Bohemian kingdoms (all pagans converted to Christianity)

Souther & Eastern

close ties to the Byzantium Empire (Croats converted to Catholicism while Serbs converted to Orthodoxy)

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