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Terms in this set (54)
an anatomical system consisting of lymphatic vessels, lymph, specialized cells called lymphocytes, lymph nodes, lymphatic organs and collections of lymphoid tissue in different parts of the body
lymphatics--are vessels that drain excess fluid from tissues into the bloodstream Lymphatics are present in almost all the regions of teh body. They are absent from the central nervouse system and such regions as the cornea, lens, cartilage and epithelium that lack a blood supply.
the smallest vessels, arise as blind ended tubes in teh interstitial spaces; walls are thin, larger than blood capillaries
vessels have folds to and from valves--lymph vessels open into lymph nodes; progressively grow larger into two lymph collective vessels 1. The Thoracic Duct and 2. the Right Lymphatic Duct
Lymph and Lymph Flow
Lymph is the excess fluid from the interstitial space that flows through the lymphatic vessels. It is clear and carries large proteins and waste from different parts of the body
small organs that filter large particles and remove foreign substances before the lymph empties into the veins.
a lymph node is surrounded by a connective tissue capsule
the connective tissue of the capsule extends into the lymph node as trabeculae, dividing the lymph node into smaller compartments.
The lymph node contains numerous lymphocytes and macrophages--types of white blood cells involved in the defense of the body--arranged in clusters called germinal centers.
tiny lymph vessels that bring lymph into the lymph node
in the lymph node, the lymph flows through irregular channels called sinuses that contain the white blood cells; sinuses are present under the capsule between the connective tissues (trabecular sinuses)and in the center of the lymph node after it is screened by the cells located inside the node.
an effurent vessel takes lymph away from the node after it is screened by the cells located inside the node. These vessels emerge from the side of the lymph node through a small indentation known as the hilus
If the white cells in the lymph nodes confront a foreign organism they destroy them. At the same time, the encounter triggers multiplication of cells causing the lymph nodes that drain an infected area to become enlarged and painful during the infection--a condition called lymphadenitis. Painful.
Lymphatic organs and tissues
In addition to lymph vessels and lymph nodes, the lymphatic system includes the lymphoid organs. 1. Thymus, 2. Spleen, 3. Lymphoid Tissue found in the tonsils, 4. Appendix, 5. Intestine
a flat, long structure with two lobes located in the medistinum, inferior to the thyroid gland in the neck, posterior to the sternum; important in the development of the immune system
an oval organ that is about the size of a clenched fist--located in the upper left side of the abdomen; posterior to ribs 9, 10, and 11; and inferior to the diaphragm; largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body
The lymphocytes that mature in the thymus
B-Cells and T-Cells
Lymphocytes are one of the five kinds of white blood cells or leukocytes), circulating in the blood. [More]
Although mature lymphocytes all look pretty much alike, they are extraordinarily diverse in their functions. The most abundant lymphocytes are:
•B lymphocytes (often simply called B cells) and
•T lymphocytes (likewise called T cells).
B cells are produced in the bone marrow.
The precursors of T cells are also produced in the bone marrow but leave the bone marrow and mature in the thymus (which accounts for their designation).
White Pulp and Red Pulp
the spleen is covered by a connective capsule and is composed of two kinds of tissue: white pule and red pulp--white pulp contains lymphocytes and macrophages which destroy foreign tissue and manufacture antibodies. Red Pulp consists of dilated veins called venous sinuses, which are filled and surrounded by cords of cells consisting of red blood cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and other white blood cells
collections of lympjoid tissue located under the mucous membrane in the mouth and the back of the throat; help protect against foreign agents that may enter teh body through teh nasal and oral cavitities.
the tissues located on either side of the throat
the tissues located near the posterior opening of the nasal cavity (also called adenoids)
The paired collections at the base of the tongue
lymphoid tissue located in the submucosa of the intestines and in the appendix defends the body against foreign agents that may enter the system through the gastrointestinal tract
in the intestinal tissue the lymphoid tissues are scattered patches known as Peyer's Patches
knowledge of the direction and route of lymph drainage can be helpful for massage therapists. The Lymph Drainage of the
5 regions of the body: 1. Head and Neck 2. Upper Extremitity 3. Breasts 4. Abdomen 5. Lower Extremitity
Four Main Areas that Need to Be Drained of Lymph
1. Head and Neck
3. Upper Extremity
4. Lower Extremity
Lymph Drainage of Head and Neck
the lymph from the right side of the scalp, face, and chest flows toward the right axilla and into the right lymphatic duct. the lymph from the left side of the scalp and face flows into the thoracic duct.
Lymph Drainage from the Breasts
85% of the lymph from this area flows into axillary nodes. The remaining lymph drains into nodes located posterior to sternum and lymph vessels located in the pectoralis muscle
Lymph Drainage from the Upper Extremity
Lymphatic vessels in the arm consist of superficial and deep groups, which anastromose with each other. The superficial vessels are present in the subcutaneous tissue, whereas the deep vessels drain the muscle, periosteum, and bone. Each finger has one to two collecting ducts that join in the dorsum of the hand to form five or six larger trunks; these are joined with collecting ducts from the palm. In the forearm, three groups of drainage vessels are present: the ulnar group, the radial group, and the median group.
Lymph Drainage in the Lower Extremitity
there are two groups of collecting ducts in the lower limb--the superficial group and the deep group
The superficial vessels arise in the subcutaneous tissue, and the deep arise from the muscles, periosteum, and bone. The two systems are connected by channels supplied with the valves that allow lymph to flow from deep to superficial. There are also collateral connections between the different groups.
Anterior Aspect of Lymph Drainage in Lower Extremitity
one to two collecting ducts arise from each toe and join on the dorsum of the foot, forming five to six larger trunks on the anterior aspect. These are joined by certain vessels arising in the plantar surface. in the anterior aspect of the leg, there are three major superficial groups of vessels; the medial, lateral, and median groups. the three groups converge on the medial aspect of the knee to course with the great saphenous vein and reach nodes in the inguinal region
Posterior Aspect of Lymph Drainage in Lower Extremitity
In the posterior aspect, two groups of collecting ducts, the retromalleolar (medial and lateral) are formed. These vessels drain lymph from the plantar surface and heel of the foot. they run upward and medially to join the collecting ducts in the thigh. Some of the lateral vessels join the deep vessels and follow the small saphonenous vein to reach the popliteal nodes, located in the posterior aspect of the knee.
Massage and the Lymphatic System
Massage has positive effects: it is believed that the effects of the massage are equal to the circulatory effects produced by contraction of muscles: reduces swelling; reduce edema; encourages lymph drainage; relieving postsurgical swelling and pain and enhances rate and quality of healing
Most positive effect of massage--reduces edema
Common symptoms of Edema
strain on associated joints and muscles
tightness of overlying skin
sensory disturbances of hand and foot
psychological disturbances owing to alterations in body image, sexuality, and social acceptance
edema caused by a low output of the lymphatic system, with resultant high levels of protein in the interstitial fluid is called Lymphodema
Massage Technique for Lymphodema
Superficial effleurage, and superificial lymph drainage; manual lymph drainage (MLD) by Dr. Emial Vodder
Contraindications of Lymphodema
Loss of Function
the ability of the body to resist infection and disease by activation of specific defense mechanisms
Non Specific Immunity
Nonspecific defenses are present from birth, and they include physical barriers, phagocytic cells, immunological surveillance by natural killer cells, liberation of a variety of chemicals, inflammation and fever
Skin--prevent or make it difficult for foreign organisms to enter the body
The mucous membranes of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, and reproductive tracts also effectively keep out organisms
saliva has antimicrobial properties; highly acidic
frequently flushed with urine; pH not conducive to microbial growth
tears, sweat, nasal secretions--contain lysozyme--an enzyme capable of breaking down the cell walls of bacteria.
white blood cells that patrol tissue
Natural Killer Cells (NK) Cells
constantly survey the tissue of the body; lymphocytes recognize any antigen that is foreign to the body
substances liberated by different cells are important in immunity--cytokines, the complement system, histamine, prostaglandins
a bodily response to injury or infection
body temperature is above 99 degrees F. pyrogens, a cytokine, reach the hypothalamus inhibits growth of certain bacteria, metabolism gets higher, too.
an immune response directed against a specific agent
agents such as bacteria, viruses, toxins, foreign tissue, and parasites that are recognized by the body as foreign stiumulate immune responses called antigens
white blood cells that recognize and destroy foreign agents in the interstitial fluid
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