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58 terms

APES Chapter 11

STUDY
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Polyface Farm (Joel Salatin)
sustainable farm which replicates natural processes, reducing pesticide/fertilizer use by allowing chickens and pigs to work and eat manure (reduces pests, mixes compost), and reducing fossil fuel use through manure-straw-corn decomposing layers of warmth in winter (reduces machinery and pollution)
undernutrition
chronic hunger/not consuming enough calories to be healthy; leads to food deficit, decreased daily function, improper brain development, and low IQ
malnutrition
result of a diet which lacks the correct balance of nutrients such as protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals
food security
access to enough [nutritious] food to meet dietary needs for a healthy lifestyle (World Health Organization)
food insecurity
inadequate access to food due to its economic/social/physical availability
famine
large number of deaths in a given area over a short period of time, due to food insecurity (5/10,000 per day; 18% annual mortality)
anemia
iron deficiency affecting 3 billion, caused by lack of dietary iron or disease
overnutrition
type of malnutrition caused by ingestion of too many calories and/or improper foods; increases risk of Type 2 diabetes/hypertension/heart disease/stroke; function of availability and affordability of [high-processed, nutrient-poor] foods
obese
more than 20 percent above ideal body weight (300 million people)
meat
second largest food source in human diet consisting of beef, veal, pork, lamb (livestock); chicken, turkey, duck (poultry)
grain
seed-like fruits such as corn, rice, wheat, rye, and others; out of 50,000 edible plants, corn/rice/wheat makes up 60 percent of human energy intake
grain, meat, fish production per capita (correlation of meat consumption)
300 kg, 40 kg, 21 kg (increase in meat consumption per capita correlates with economic growth, both worldwide and in U.S.)
poverty
lack of resources that allows one access to food; primary reason for undernutrition and malnutrition
industrial agriculture (agribusiness)
applies industrial techniques such as mechanization and standardization to food production
energy subsidy
energy input per calorie of food produced; small-scale agriculture has less than large-scale, commercial agriculture
Green Revolution
20th century shift in farming methods which introduced mechanization (and monocrops) to agriculture, as well as fertilization, irrigation, and improved crop variety
mechanization
favored in areas where fossil fuels are abundant, fuel prices are low, and labor prices are high; generally provides more profit to a farm, especially if it is larger and single-crop
economies of scale
the average cost of production falls as output increases; investments in mechanization are justified by higher
profits from larger areas of land and larger crop yields
irrigation
the process of bringing water to arid areas which uses water more efficiently, increases crop growth rates, and enables otherwise impossible crop production; however, can draw down aquifers and promote saltwater intrusion into wells
salinization
small amount of salt in irrigation water becomes highly concentrated on soil surface after evaporation; eventually reaches toxic levels and halts plant growth
waterlogging
impairs root growth through lack of oxygen when soil remains under water for prolonged periods
organic fertilizer
returns nutrients to agricultural soils through spreading of organic matter (such as decomposing manure)
synthetic/inorganic fertilizer
commercially produced fertilizer which is easily applied, can be altered to target specific crops, and can be absorbed in poor soils; however, uses fossil fuel energy, is more susceptible to runoff and reduces oxygen levels in water, and doesn't add key organic matter to the soil
monocropping (monoculture)
large planting of single crop species or variety encouraged by mechanization of agriculture and use of synthetic fertilizers; efficient but leads to soil erosion and pest vulnerability
insecticide
pesticide which targets insects and other crop-consuming invertebrates
herbicide
pesticide which targets plant species that compete with crops
pesticide
natural or synthetic substance which kills or controls organisms considered to be pests
broad-spectrum pesticide
pesticide which kills wide variety of pest types (ex., dimethoate)
selective (narrow-spectrum) pesticide
pesticide which kills fewer types of pests (ex., acequinocyl)
persistent (pesticide)
pesticide which remians in the environment for a long time and may consequently harm organisms other than intended targets (ex., DDT)
nonpersistent (pesticide)
pesticide which breaks down in weeks or months and has fewer long-term effects, but must be applied more often (ex., Roundup)
bioaccumulation
increased concentration of a chemical within an organism over time (ex.,through predatorial consumption of pesticide chemicals)
resistant
surviving individuals of a pesticide application who possess genetic immunity to the pesticide which can be passed down
pesticide treadmill
pests resistant to a pesticide gradually form larger and larger fractions of the population until the population is immune, requiring application of new pesticides and forming a positive feedback cycle
GMO (genetically modified organism)
organism possessing a specific gene injected into its DNA from another organism, which gives it desirable traits impossible to develop by traditional breeding techniques; benefits include increased crop yield/quality, less pesticide use, and increased profits; costs include reduction in biodiversity and questionable safety of consumption
conventional agriculture
widespread agriculture characterized by mechanization and standardization (a.k.a. industrial agricultural or agribusiness)
shifting agriculture
land is cleared ("slash-and-burn") and used until depleted of nutrients; prone to overuse and decline in soil productivity, oxidizes carbon leading to higher atmospheric CO2
desertification
dry, nutrient-poor soils are degraded by agricultural until they are completely unproductive; caused by salinization from irrigation and erosion from shallow-rooted annual plants
nomadic grazing
sustainable use of soils with low productivity which grazes animal herds over long distances through seasonally productive feeding grounds, allowing vegetation to regenerate
sustainable agriculture
farming which meets food/fiber productionneeds while improving soil quality, conserving nonrenewable resources, and giving farmers economic prosperity; agriculture on a given piece of land should be indefinite
intercropping
two or more crop species are planted in the same field at the same time to promote beneficial interaction (ex., nitrogen fixers planted with nitrogen users.)
crop rotation
rotation of crop species in a field from season to season, preventing pest development and leaving nutrients for alternating crops
agroforestry
intercropping trees with vegetables, reducing erosion and providing fruit and firewood
contour plowing
plowing/harvesting parallel to topographic contours of land , preventing water erosion while retaining ability to plow
no-till agriculture
avoids soil degradation associated with conventional agricultural techniques through preserving soil horizons, preventing erosion, and reducing oxidation/CO2; however, increases use of herbicides
integrated pest management (IPM)
agricultural practice minimizing need for pesticide application while increasing yield through crop rotation, intercropping, pest-resistant crops, and predator habitat creation; pesticides used sparingly after careful observation in targeted method
organic agriculture
small farm production of crops without synthetic pesticides or fertilizers, focusing on soil maintenance and environmental preservation; less likely to use no-till agriculture and uses fossil fuel
principles of organic agriculture
1) work with natural systems
2) retain organic matter and nutrients in soil
3) avoid synthetic fertilizer/pesticides
4) increase soil mass and biochemical properties
5) reduce agriculture's environmental effects
concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs)
feedlots; large indoor/outdoor structures designed for for maximum output which confines animals; increases efficiency, but also increases waste runoff, manure buildup, and antibiotic-resistant microorganisms
free-range meat
meat produced more sustainably than that in CAFOs through natural grazing and open spaces, reduced use of antibiotics, and naturally dispersed manure; cons include more land required and higher cost
fishery
commercially harvestable population of fish within a particular ecological region
fishery collapse
decline of a fish population by 90 percent or more
bycatch
unintentional catch of nontarget species (juveniles, non-commercials) which significantly reduces populations
individual transferable quotas (ITQs)
prevents fishery collapse, increases populations and harvest through sale/distribution of shares of the total allowable catch; reduces tragedy of the commons and overfishing
aquaculture
farming of aquatic organisms like fish, shellfish, and seaweed; could alleviate undernutrition and boost economy, but pumped wastewater contains pollutants and dangerous organisms, and escaped fish could compete, interbreed, or spread disease among wild fish populations
annual plant
plants which live for one season and must be replanted, disrupting the soil (ex., wheat, corn)
perennial plant
plants which live for multiple years; reduce soil disturbance, produce longer roots and emerge in early spring because of longer growing season, already established root systems allows more energy towards stem/fruit/seeds
Goals of Land Institute
to develop sustainable crops that provide sufficient amounts of food, reduce soil erosion and the need for synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation (How? conversion of annuals to perennials, domestication of wild perennials, selective breeding and technology)