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109 terms

Chapter 12 Integuementary System pt. 2

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Biopsy
Removal of a small piece of living tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis
Incisional biopsy
A piece but not all of the tumor or lesion removed
Excisional biopsy
The entire tumor or lesion plus a margin of surrounding tissue are removed
Needle biopsy
A needle is used to remove a core of tissue for examination
Exfoliative cytology
Biopsy form in which cells are scraped from the tissue and examined under a microscope
Seborrhea
Any of several common skin conditions in which there is an overproduction of sebum
Acne vulgaris
Chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a pusular eruptions of the skin that usually occur in or near the sebaceous glands
Comedo
Blackhead; formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a pore of the skin
Sebaceous cyst
Cyst of a sebaceous gland, containing yellow, fatty material
Hyperhidrosis
Condition of excessive sweating
Anhidrosis
Condition of lacking or being without sweat
Pilonidal
A hair containing cyst found in the midlinen over the area of the sacrum
Hirsutism
Means abnormal hairiness
Alopecia
Aka baldness, partial or complete lack of hair
Alopecia areata
Disease of unknown cause in which there are well-defined bald patches
Alopecia totalis
Uncommon condition characterized by the loss of all the hair on the scalp
Alopecia universalis
Total hair loss on all parts of the body
Onchia
Aka onychitis. Inflammation of the matrix of the nail
Paronychia
Infection of the fold of skin at the margin of a nail
Onchyophagia
Nail-biting or eating
Onchyocryptosis
Ingrown toenail
Onchymycosis
Fungus infection of the nail
Subungual hematoma
Collection of blood under a nail, usually resulting from and injury
Koilonychias
Aka spoon nail, a malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave(scooped out). Indicative of iron deficiency anemia
Clubbing
Abnormal flattening of the nail that is often accompanied by enlargement of the fingertips. Associated with chronic lack of oxygen caused by coronary or pulmonary disease.
Dyschromia
Any disorder of the pigmentation of the skin or hair
Melanosis
Any condition of unusual deposits of black pigment in different parts of the body
Albinism
Inherited deficiency or absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes due to an abnormality in production of melanin
Vitiligo
A loss of pigment in areas of the skin, resulting in milk-white patches
Lesion
Pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury. described by appearance, location.
Contusion
Injury that does not break the skin and is characterized by swelling, discoloration, and pain.
Papule
Small, solid, raised skin lesion that is less than 0.5 cm in diameter; for example, nonpustular acne
Plaque
Solid raised lesion that is greater than 0.5 cm in diameter
Macule
Discolored, flat skin lesion such as a freckle or flat mole that is less than 1cm in diameter
Patch
Localized change in skin color of greater than 1 cm in diameter
Scale
Flaking or a dry patch made up of an excess dead epidermal cells
Crust
Collection of dried serum and cellular debris
Wheal
Smooth, slightly elevated, swollen area that is redder or paler than the surrounding skin that is usually accompanied by itching, for example, and insect bite or a reaction to an allergy skin test
Ecchymosis
Bruise; purplish patch caused by bleeding into the skin.
Petechiae
Small, pinpoint hemorrhage
Verrucae
Warts, skin lesions caused by the HIV
Birthmark
Aka patch/nevus. Congenital hemangioma or pigmented cells on the skin surface.
Cyst
Closed sack or pouch containing fluid or semisolid material.
Pustule
Small circumscribed elevation of the skin containing pus. Circumscribed- contained within limited area
Vesicle
Aka blister. Circumscribed elevation of skin containing fluid that is less than .5 cm in diameter.
Bulla
Large vescle or blister that is more than .5 cm in diameter.
Abscess
Localized collection of pus within a circumscribed area and associated with tissue destruction
Laceration
Torn or jagged wound or an accidental cut wound
Ulcer
Open sore or erosion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss and usually with inflammation
Decubitus ulcer
Aka pressure ulcer or bedsore. And ulcerated area resulting from prolonged pressure on a body part.
Fissure
Groove or cracklike sore
Fistula
Abnormal passage from and internal organ to the body surface or between two internal organs
Dermatosis
General term used to denote any skin lesion or group of lesions, or eruptions of any type that is not associated with inflammation.
Keratosis
Any benign skin condition, such as a wart or callus, in which there is overgrowth and thickening of the epidermis.
Dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin
Contact dermatitis
Localized allergic response caused by contact with an irritant or allergen.
Pruritus
Aka itching. Associated with most forms of dermatitis
Urticaria
Aka hives. skin condition characterized by localized areas of swelling accompanied by itching that is associated with an allergic reaction.
Erythroderma
Abnormal redness of skin occurring over widespread areas of the body
Erythema
Redness or inflammation of the skin sch as a nervous blush or a mild sunburn
Xeroderma
Excessively dry skin
Psoriasis
Chronic autoimmune disorder of the skin characterized by itching and by red papules covered with silvery scales that occur predominantly on the elbows, knees, scalp, and trunk
Eczema
Inflammatory skin disease characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, and scabs alone or in combination.
Purpura
Any condition characterized by hemorrhage into the skin that causes spontaneous bruising
Abrasion
Injury in which superficial layers of skin are scraped or rubbed away.
Cellulitis
Diffuse infection of connective tissue with severe inflammation of the dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin.
Pyodermia
Purulent (producing pus or containing pus) skin disease.
Impetigo
Contagious superficial pyoderma caused by staphylococci and streptococci
Furuncle
Aka boil. Localized skin infection originating in a gland or hair folliclel
Carbuncle
Infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue composed of a cluster of furuncles
Dermatomycosis
Superficial fungal infection of the skin.
Gangrene
Necrosis that is usually associated with a loss of circulation. Tissue death is followed by bacterial invasion and putrefaction.
Putrefication
Decay that produces foul-smelling odors
Scleroderma
Means "hard skin". Autoimmune disorder that causes abnormal tissue thickening usually starting on the fingers, hands or face.
Scabies
Skin infection caused by an infestation with the itch mite
Pediculosis
An infestation with lice. Named for body part.
Actinic keratosis
Precancerous skin lesion caused by excessive exposure to the sun. raised rough, dry, or scaly spots that are tan, brown, gray, or red.
Malignant melanoma
Aka skin cancer. Malignant neoplasm derived from cells capable of forming melanin. May occur in skin of any body part and may metastasize to the lungs, liver, and brain.
Basal cell carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis. Found on face. Most frequent and least harmful skin cancer. Slow growing and rarely spreads. Lesions are smooth with depression in center, pink in color, and bleed easily.
Squamous cell carcinoma
Begins as malignant tumors of the squamous cells of the epithelium. It can quickly spread to other obdy parts. Start as skin lesions that appear to be sores that won't heal or with a crusted, heaped-up look
Granuloma
General term used to describe a small knotlike swellings of granulation tissue. May result from inflammation, injury, or infection.
Granulation tissue
Normally forms during healing of wound.
Pyogenic granuloma
Small rounded mass of highly vascular granulation tissue frequently with an ulcerated surface, projecting from the skin or mucosa
Skin tags
Small flesh-covered or light brown growths that hang from the body by fine stalks. Benign and tend to enlarge with age.
Polyp
General term used most commonly to describe a mushrrom-like growth from the surface of a mucous membrane. Have many cuases and aren't necessarily malignant.
Cicatrix
"normal" scar left by a healed wound
Keloid
Abnormally raised or thickened scar
Papilloma
Benign epithelial neoplasm characterized by a branching or lobular tumor
Lipoma
Benign tumor made up of mature fat cells.
Burn
Injury to tissues of the body caused by heat, flame, electricity, chemicals, or radiation.
First degree burn
Aka superficial burns- no blisters and only superficial damage to the epidermis
Second degree burn
Aka partial thickness burns. There are blisters and damage to the epidermis and dermis.
Third degree burn
Aka full thickness burns, in which the epidermis, corium and subcutaneous layers are damaged.
Debridement
Removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cell debris from a wound to prevent infection and promote healing.
Incision and drainage
Involves incision a lesion, such as an abscess, and draining the contents
Chemical peel
Chemabrasion, the use of chemicals to remove the outer layers of skin to treat acne scaring, fine wrinkling, and general keratoses
Dermabrasion
A form of abrasion involving the use of revolving wire brushes or sandpaper
Cauterization
The destruction of tissue for therapeutic purposes.
Cryosurgery
Destruction of tissue through the application of extreme cold
L.A.S.E.R.
Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Substance (solid, liquid, or gas) stimulated to emit light that is strengthened to a specific wavelength. Wavelength of beam is key to the laser's effect on tissue.
Rhinophyma
Aka bulbous nose. Overgrowth of skin and oil glands of the nose. Treated by using a carbon dioxide laser to reshape the nose by vaporizing the excess tissue.
Port-wine stain
Treated using short pulses of laser light to remove the birthmark. Treatment may require many sessions because only a small section is treated at a time
Tattoo removal
Done by using lasers that target particular colors
Blepharoplasty
Lid lift; surgical reduction of the upper and lower eyelids.
Rhytidectomy
Face lift; surgical removal of excess skin for the elimination of wrinkles.
Liposuction
Surgical removal of fat beneath the skin which the aid of suction.
Lipectomy
Surgical removal of fat beneath the skin
Plication
Surgical procedure of taking tucks in a structure to shorten it.
sclerotherapy
Used in the treatment of spider veins, involving injection a sclerosing solution into the vein being treated. Irritates the tissue, causes swelling, and closes off the vein.