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93 terms

Chapter 14

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Short preganglionic, long postganglionic fibers.
Sympathetic
Collateral ganglia.
Sympathetic
Increases blood pressure.
Sympathetic
Decreases heart rate.
Parasympathetic
Causes erection of the penis.
Parasympathetic
Stimulates ciliary muscles of the eye.
Parasympathetic
Active after you have eaten a meal.
Parasympathetic
Preganglionic sympathetic.
Acetylcholine
Preganglionic parasympathetic.
Acetylcholine
Postganglionic sympathetic to sweat glands.
Acetylcholine
Postganglionic parasympathetic.
Acetylcholine
Most postganglionic sympathetic.
Norepinephrine
Most body organs are innervated by only the sympathetic division of the nervous system.
False
Through direct neural stimulation, the sympathetic division promotes many metabolic effects via hormone release.
True
Cranial nerves VII, IX, and X contain postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system.
False
In contrast to the parasympathetic division, the sympathetic division has numerous ganglionic neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord.
False
Norepinephrine-releasing fibers are called cholingeric fibers
False
The parasympathetic division is a branch of the somatic nervous system.
False
The craniosacral division is the same as the parasympathetic division.
True
The chain ganglion, like the dorsal root ganglion, contains soma from sensory neurons.
False
Most blood vessels are innervated by the sympathetic division alone.
True
The blood vessels of the skin are one of the few areas of the body where the vessels are innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
False
Events recorded in a lie detector examination are controlled by the sympathetic division.
True
All splanchnic nerves are sympathetic.
False
Splanchnic nerves pass through the abdominal plexus.
True
Since the ANS is a visceral motor system, afferent pathways are of no importance and actually are rarely found.
False
The rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic division of the ANS.
True
The gray rami communications consist of myelinated postganglionic fibers.
False
Splanchnic nerves are mixed motor and sensory nerves.
False
The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected.
True
The celiac ganglion is primarily associated with the sympathetic division.
True
The sympathetic chain is composed of collateral ganglia.
True
Thermoregulatory responses to increased heat are mediated by the sympathetic nervous division.
True
Most disorders of the autonomic nervous system reflect abnormalities of smooth muscle control.
True
Alpha-adrenergic effects are usually stimulatory and mediatory.
True
The adrenal medulla is considered a ʺmisplacedʺ sympathetic ganglion by some.
True
Acetylcholine is the substance released by the axonal endings of the somatic efferent fibers and by the parasympathetic nerve fiber endings.
True
The structures that specifically exhibit vasomotor tone are mostly under sympathetic control.
True
Since many of the same cardiac cells are innervated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers, the influence of the two divisions on the heart is synergistic.
False
β-adrenergic receptors are the only receptors found on the heart.
False
Autonomic reflex centers occur in the spinal cord, medulla, and midbrain.
True
The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.
sympathetic stimulation
In contrast to the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system ________.
has two efferent neurons
Preparing the body for the ʺfight-or-flightʺ response is the role of the ________.
sympathetic nervous system
The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by peripheral ganglia near the ________.
organs and by short postganglionic fibers
A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be ________.
a beta-blocker
The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.
ciliary ganglion
Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.
dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.
X
The ʺresting and digestingʺ division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
parasympathetic division
Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.
hypothalamus
Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
skeletal muscle
Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
dilation of the pupils
The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the ________.
brain stem and the sacral region of the cord
Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.
single preganglionic axons make multiple synapses with ganglionic neurons
Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebrae?
first thoracic
Autonomic ganglia contain ________.
the cell bodies of motor neurons
The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the lens of the eye, the muscles that cause the eye to bulge to accommodate close vision.
oculomotor
Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called ________.
splanchnic nerves
Which is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?
celiac
Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.
visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
The parasympathetic tone ________.
determines normal activity of the urinary tract
The autonomic nervous system ________.
is directly controlled by the reticular formation of the brain stem
The white rami ________.
carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain
Beta-blockers ________.
attach mainly to the β1 receptors of cardiac muscle
Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.
is primarily under parasympathetic control
Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?
regulation of body temperature
Raynaudʹs disease ________.
is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
The mass reflex reaction ________.
represents a return of reflex activity with no controls from higher centers
In congenital megacolon (Hirschsprung's disease) ________.
the distal portion of the large intestine fails to develop parasympathetic innervation
In aging, autonomic inefficiency is often due to ________.
clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments
Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the ________.
thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine
Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?
in the armpit
Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.
increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.
tenth cranial nerve
The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is the ________.
vagus nerve
Parasympathetic functions include ________.
constriction of bronchioles
All preganglionic axons of the autonomic nervous system release ________.
the same transmitter as the one released by parasympathetic postganglionic axons
Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.
hypothalamus
The possibility of control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.
biofeedback
The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.
parotid gland
The sympathetic division is referred to as the ________ system.
fight-or-flight
Two major classes of adrenergic receptors, ________ and ________ are found in the ANS.
alpha; beta
The ________ division causes erection of the penis and clitoris.
parasympathetic
Sweat glands are innervated by the ________ fibers alone.
sympathetic
The ________ division alone stimulates the lens of the eye.
parasympathetic
The two cholinergic receptor types are ________ and ________.
nicotinic; muscarinic
The ________ receptor type is used by the heart, and when activated increases heart rate.
β1
The only sympathetic preganglionic neuron to go directly to an organ is one branch of the ________ splanchnic nerve.
greater
Pain from the diaphragm will be referred to the anterior cutaneous area of the ________.
neck
The parasympathetic division uses only ________ as a neurotransmitter in the ganglionic neurons.
acetylcholine
How are the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions different?
1. They have unique origin sites.
2. They have different lengths of pre- and postganglionic axons.
3. Their ganglia are located in different areas.
In what ways are the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system different?
1. The autonomic is a two-neuron system; the somatic uses one.
2. The autonomic uses smaller neuron fibers (type B or C); the somatic generally uses the type A fibers.
3. The autonomic is mostly involuntary and automatic; the somatic is voluntary.
4. The autonomic uses several neurotransmitters and many receptor types; the somatic uses only one.
5. The autonomic is a slow system; the somatic is a fast system.
6. The autonomic has opposing forces to regulate the body; the somatic does not.