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close to point of attachment


far from point of attachment


away from midline


close to midline


close to surface


toward interior of body


deals with the structure (morphology) of the body and its parts, in other words, "what are things called?"


studies the functions of these parts or asks the questions "how do they work?"

chemical (structural levels of body)

smallest level, atom

cell (structural levels of body)

basic unit of life

tissue (structural levels of body)

group of cells with similar structure and function plus extracellular substance

organ (structural levels of body)

2 or more tissue types (largest= heart)

requirements of organisms

water, food, oxygen, heat, pressure (quality and quantitiy)


maintenance of a stable internal enviornment


anything that takes up mass

most abundant elements

oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen

covalant bonds

formed when atoms share electrons

chemical reactions

occurs as bonds are formed or broken between atoms, ions, or molecules

ionic bond

formed by oppositely charged ions which attract eachother


ability to work

kinetic energy

energy in motion

potential energy

stored energy

chemical energy

energy stored in chemical bonds (food)


sugar found in food, used to make ATP


stored glucose, stored in liver, skeletal muscle, fat


"Adenosine Triphosphate" stored energy

acid pH #


base pH #


organic compound

compounds that contain both hydrogen and carbon


provide energy for cellular activity. made from monoacchrides


simple sugars


2 monosaccaride joined together

complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)

built of many sugars (starch)

functions of carbohydrates

short-term energy storage, converted to glucose quickly.


contains carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. built up of amino acids.

amino acids

20 different types. contain an amine group and carboxyl group. amino acids are not stored so a daily supply is required

functions of proteins

used to make skin, hair, nails, muscles, and hemoglobin. act as enzymes, immune system functions. muscle contractions (actin and myosin), and part of cell membrane.

characteristics of lipids

contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. (ex. fats, oils, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids) Glycerol and fatty acids are the building blocks. Insoluable in water

why are lipids (fats) insoluable in water?

because of the polarity. fats don't like water

functions of lipids

long term energy storage, insulates against heat loss, protective cushion for organs, cholesterol is part of the cell membrane structure

types of lipids

saturated and unsaturated


single covalent bonds between carbon atoms (ex. beef, pork, whole milk, cheese, eggs)


one or more double covalent bonds between carbons (ex. olive oil, fish oil, sunflower oil) healthier

nucleic acids

form genes and take part in protein synthesis. they are bound into building blocks called nucleotides. DNA and RNA


(deoxyribonucleic acid) stores the molecular code in genes


(ribonucleic acid) functions in protein synthesis.


composed of nitrogen base, phosphate, and 5 carbon sugar

4 main parts of a cell

organelles, the nucleus, cytoplasm, and the cell membrane


perform specific funtions for the cell (nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria)


jelly like, holds organelles

4 functions of the cell

cell metabolism and energy use, synthesis of molecules, communication, reproduction and inheritance

cell membrane

outter most component of a cell

functions of the cell membrane

selective barrier, encloses cytoplasm


material outside cell


material inside the cell

fluid mosaic model

structure of cell membrane- made of phospholipids and several types of proteins.


form a double layer or bilayer. contain 2 regions; polar and nonpolar (fatty acid tail)

passive movement through cell membrane

requiring no energy from the cell (diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, and filtration) from region of higher to lower concentration

active movement through cell membrame

requiring cellular energy (active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis)


random movement of molecules from areas of high to low concentration

facilitated diffusion

uses trans-membrane proteins that function as carriers to move larger molecules (such as glucose) across the cell membrane, from region of higher to lower concentration


process that brings materials into cell using vesicles, vesicles fuses with cell membrane. 2- phagocytosis (cell eating)/ pinocytosis (cell drinking)


process that carries materials out of cell using vesicles, vesicles fuse with cell membrane

cellular clocks

limited number of cell divisions

death genes theory

turned on later in life

DNA damage

leads to cell degeneration and death

free radicals

unpaired electrons lead to nuclear DNA mutations

Mitochondrial DNA damage

loss of cellular energy production

cell metabolism and energy use

chemical reations release energy used for cell activities

synthesis of molecules

proteins, lipids, nucleic acids... different cells= different molecules


muscle cells "talk" to other muscle cells, nerve cells "talk" to nerve cells, nerve cells "talk" to muscle cells...


a group of cells with similar structure and function plus a non-living portion called the extracellular matrix


the study of tissue

basement membrane

attaches epithelial tissue to underlying tissues made of a meshwork of protein and other molecules. mostly proteins, stick epithelial tissue to connective tissue

free cell surface

surface not in contact with other cell, smooth to reduce friction


to increase cell's surface area


to move materials across cell's surface

goblet cell

produce mucus

tight junction

bind adjacent cells together


mechanical links that bind cells


bind cells to bind cells to basement membrane

gap junctions

small channels that- allow molecules to pass between cells, allow cells to communicate/ coordinate, are the most common

functions of epithelial tissues

protect, act as a barrier, diffusion, secretion, absorption

collagen fibers

look like ropes and are flexible but resist stretching

reticular fibers

supporting network that branches, fills spaces between organs and tissues

elastic fibers

recoil after being stretched

ground substance

gel-like background material in connective tissue






break down for remodeling


connect bone to muscle


connect bone to bone

functions of connective tissue

enclose and seperate, connect tissues, support and movement, storage, cushion and insulate, transport, and protect


most rigid connective tissue, with deposits of mineral salts and collagen within the matrix. internally supports the body, protects, forms muscle attachments and is the site for blood cell formation.


bone cells

3 types of mucle tissue

skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue


striped or stranded

cutaneous membrane

the skin, also called the integumentary system. composed of stratified and dense connective tissues

mucous membranes

line cavities and openings that lead to the outside of the body. consist of epithelium and connective tissue with specialized goblet cells that secrete mucus, including the oral and nasal cavities, and openings of the digestive, reproductive, respiratory, and urinary systems.

serous membranes

line body cavities and cover organs that ack opening to the outside. made up of epithelium and loose tissue. secrete serous fluid that acts as a lubricant for organs that rub against one anotheral.

synovial membranes

line the joint cavities, consist of only connective tissues. line inside of joint cavities, secrete lubricating synovial fluid.

tissue inflammation

occurs when tissues are damaged through infection or trauma

chemical mediators

released after injury, cause dialation of blood vessels

symptoms of inflammation

redness, heat, swelling, pain, pus

tissue repair

substitution of dead cells with viable cells


cells of same type develop (no scar), primarily by stem cell, normal function is restored


cells of a different type develop (scar), loss of some tissue function, adult heart, brain, cardiac/skeletal muscle

anatomical position

person standing erect with face and palms forward


person laying face up


person laying face down

upper limbs

upper arm, forearm, wrist, hand

lower limbs

thigh, lower leg, ankle, foot


head, neck, trunk


thoracic (chest), abdomin, pelvis


runs vertivally ans seperates body into left and right


runs down the middle and divides body into equal left and right halves


runs horizontally and separates body into top and bottom

frontal (coronal)

runs vertically and separates body into anterior and posterior

thoracic cavity

heart, lungs, thymus gland, esophagus, trachea


divides thoracic cavity into left and right

abdominal cavity

stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys

pelvic cavity

urinary bladder, reproductive organs, part of large intestine.

pericardial cavity

around the heart

pleural cavity

around the lungs

peritoneal cavity

around the abdominopelvic cavity

visceral membrane

covers organs

parietal membrane

lines cavity walls

serous membrane

secretes a think layer of fluid (serous) seperates the 2 layers


double- layered membrane that covers organs and anchors them to body wall

integumentary functions

protection, sensation, temperature regulation, excretion, vitamin D production


1st major skin region (outside). composed of stratified squamous epithelium. outermost cells protect deeper replicating cells


process in which new cells push old cells to surface. (40-56 days for new cells to move to free surface.

keratin production

permeability barrier, abrasion resistance


produced by melanocytes, ranges from yellow to reddish- brown to black. responsible for hair and eye color and provides protection against UV light. amount produced determined by genetics, UV light, hormones

freckles/ moles

accumulation of melanin


absence of melanin


yellow- orange pigment found in plants. accumulates in stratun corneum


gives pinkish-red color, found in red blood cells

skin color and disease

redness, pallor, jaundice, bronzing, bruising

exposure to UV light

stimulates melanocytes to increase production of melanin


the skin reacting to UV exposure

basal cell carcinoma

most common type. Cells in stratum affected, extend into dermis, cancer removed by surgery

squamous cell carcinoma

cells directly above stratum basal affected. Tumor can invade, metastasize and cause death

malignant melanoma

rare type. Arises from melanocytes in a mole, metastasis is common and often causes death

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