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172 terms

ANATOMY EXAM

STUDY
PLAY
inferior
below
superior
above
posterior
back
dorsal
posterior
ventral
anterior
proximal
close to point of attachment
distal
far from point of attachment
lateral
away from midline
medial
close to midline
superficial
close to surface
deep
toward interior of body
anatomy
deals with the structure (morphology) of the body and its parts, in other words, "what are things called?"
physiology
studies the functions of these parts or asks the questions "how do they work?"
chemical (structural levels of body)
smallest level, atom
cell (structural levels of body)
basic unit of life
tissue (structural levels of body)
group of cells with similar structure and function plus extracellular substance
organ (structural levels of body)
2 or more tissue types (largest= heart)
requirements of organisms
water, food, oxygen, heat, pressure (quality and quantitiy)
homeostasis
maintenance of a stable internal enviornment
matter
anything that takes up mass
most abundant elements
oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen
covalant bonds
formed when atoms share electrons
chemical reactions
occurs as bonds are formed or broken between atoms, ions, or molecules
ionic bond
formed by oppositely charged ions which attract eachother
energy
ability to work
kinetic energy
energy in motion
potential energy
stored energy
chemical energy
energy stored in chemical bonds (food)
glucose
sugar found in food, used to make ATP
glycogen
stored glucose, stored in liver, skeletal muscle, fat
ATP
"Adenosine Triphosphate" stored energy
acid pH #
lower
base pH #
higher
organic compound
compounds that contain both hydrogen and carbon
carbohydrates
provide energy for cellular activity. made from monoacchrides
monoacchrides
simple sugars
disaccharides
2 monosaccaride joined together
complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)
built of many sugars (starch)
functions of carbohydrates
short-term energy storage, converted to glucose quickly.
proteins
contains carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. built up of amino acids.
amino acids
20 different types. contain an amine group and carboxyl group. amino acids are not stored so a daily supply is required
functions of proteins
used to make skin, hair, nails, muscles, and hemoglobin. act as enzymes, immune system functions. muscle contractions (actin and myosin), and part of cell membrane.
characteristics of lipids
contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. (ex. fats, oils, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids) Glycerol and fatty acids are the building blocks. Insoluable in water
why are lipids (fats) insoluable in water?
because of the polarity. fats don't like water
functions of lipids
long term energy storage, insulates against heat loss, protective cushion for organs, cholesterol is part of the cell membrane structure
types of lipids
saturated and unsaturated
saturated
single covalent bonds between carbon atoms (ex. beef, pork, whole milk, cheese, eggs)
unsaturated
one or more double covalent bonds between carbons (ex. olive oil, fish oil, sunflower oil) healthier
nucleic acids
form genes and take part in protein synthesis. they are bound into building blocks called nucleotides. DNA and RNA
DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid) stores the molecular code in genes
RNA
(ribonucleic acid) functions in protein synthesis.
nucleotides
composed of nitrogen base, phosphate, and 5 carbon sugar
4 main parts of a cell
organelles, the nucleus, cytoplasm, and the cell membrane
organelles
perform specific funtions for the cell (nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria)
cytoplasm
jelly like, holds organelles
4 functions of the cell
cell metabolism and energy use, synthesis of molecules, communication, reproduction and inheritance
cell membrane
outter most component of a cell
functions of the cell membrane
selective barrier, encloses cytoplasm
extracellular
material outside cell
intracellular
material inside the cell
fluid mosaic model
structure of cell membrane- made of phospholipids and several types of proteins.
phospholipids
form a double layer or bilayer. contain 2 regions; polar and nonpolar (fatty acid tail)
passive movement through cell membrane
requiring no energy from the cell (diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, and filtration) from region of higher to lower concentration
active movement through cell membrame
requiring cellular energy (active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis)
diffusion
random movement of molecules from areas of high to low concentration
facilitated diffusion
uses trans-membrane proteins that function as carriers to move larger molecules (such as glucose) across the cell membrane, from region of higher to lower concentration
endocytosis
process that brings materials into cell using vesicles, vesicles fuses with cell membrane. 2- phagocytosis (cell eating)/ pinocytosis (cell drinking)
exocytosis
process that carries materials out of cell using vesicles, vesicles fuse with cell membrane
cellular clocks
limited number of cell divisions
death genes theory
turned on later in life
DNA damage
leads to cell degeneration and death
free radicals
unpaired electrons lead to nuclear DNA mutations
Mitochondrial DNA damage
loss of cellular energy production
cell metabolism and energy use
chemical reations release energy used for cell activities
synthesis of molecules
proteins, lipids, nucleic acids... different cells= different molecules
communication
muscle cells "talk" to other muscle cells, nerve cells "talk" to nerve cells, nerve cells "talk" to muscle cells...
tissue
a group of cells with similar structure and function plus a non-living portion called the extracellular matrix
histology
the study of tissue
basement membrane
attaches epithelial tissue to underlying tissues made of a meshwork of protein and other molecules. mostly proteins, stick epithelial tissue to connective tissue
free cell surface
surface not in contact with other cell, smooth to reduce friction
microvilli
to increase cell's surface area
cilia
to move materials across cell's surface
goblet cell
produce mucus
tight junction
bind adjacent cells together
desmosomes
mechanical links that bind cells
hemidesmosomes
bind cells to bind cells to basement membrane
gap junctions
small channels that- allow molecules to pass between cells, allow cells to communicate/ coordinate, are the most common
functions of epithelial tissues
protect, act as a barrier, diffusion, secretion, absorption
collagen fibers
look like ropes and are flexible but resist stretching
reticular fibers
supporting network that branches, fills spaces between organs and tissues
elastic fibers
recoil after being stretched
ground substance
gel-like background material in connective tissue
-blast
build
-cyte
maintain
-clast
break down for remodeling
tendons
connect bone to muscle
ligaments
connect bone to bone
functions of connective tissue
enclose and seperate, connect tissues, support and movement, storage, cushion and insulate, transport, and protect
bone
most rigid connective tissue, with deposits of mineral salts and collagen within the matrix. internally supports the body, protects, forms muscle attachments and is the site for blood cell formation.
osteocytes
bone cells
3 types of mucle tissue
skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue
striations
striped or stranded
cutaneous membrane
the skin, also called the integumentary system. composed of stratified and dense connective tissues
mucous membranes
line cavities and openings that lead to the outside of the body. consist of epithelium and connective tissue with specialized goblet cells that secrete mucus, including the oral and nasal cavities, and openings of the digestive, reproductive, respiratory, and urinary systems.
serous membranes
line body cavities and cover organs that ack opening to the outside. made up of epithelium and loose tissue. secrete serous fluid that acts as a lubricant for organs that rub against one anotheral.
synovial membranes
line the joint cavities, consist of only connective tissues. line inside of joint cavities, secrete lubricating synovial fluid.
tissue inflammation
occurs when tissues are damaged through infection or trauma
chemical mediators
released after injury, cause dialation of blood vessels
symptoms of inflammation
redness, heat, swelling, pain, pus
tissue repair
substitution of dead cells with viable cells
regeneration
cells of same type develop (no scar), primarily by stem cell, normal function is restored
replacement
cells of a different type develop (scar), loss of some tissue function, adult heart, brain, cardiac/skeletal muscle
anatomical position
person standing erect with face and palms forward
supine
person laying face up
prone
person laying face down
upper limbs
upper arm, forearm, wrist, hand
lower limbs
thigh, lower leg, ankle, foot
central
head, neck, trunk
trunk
thoracic (chest), abdomin, pelvis
sagittal
runs vertivally ans seperates body into left and right
midsagittal
runs down the middle and divides body into equal left and right halves
transverse
runs horizontally and separates body into top and bottom
frontal (coronal)
runs vertically and separates body into anterior and posterior
thoracic cavity
heart, lungs, thymus gland, esophagus, trachea
mediastinum
divides thoracic cavity into left and right
abdominal cavity
stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys
pelvic cavity
urinary bladder, reproductive organs, part of large intestine.
pericardial cavity
around the heart
pleural cavity
around the lungs
peritoneal cavity
around the abdominopelvic cavity
visceral membrane
covers organs
parietal membrane
lines cavity walls
serous membrane
secretes a think layer of fluid (serous) seperates the 2 layers
mesentery
double- layered membrane that covers organs and anchors them to body wall
integumentary functions
protection, sensation, temperature regulation, excretion, vitamin D production
epidermis
1st major skin region (outside). composed of stratified squamous epithelium. outermost cells protect deeper replicating cells
keratinization
process in which new cells push old cells to surface. (40-56 days for new cells to move to free surface.
keratin production
permeability barrier, abrasion resistance
melanin
produced by melanocytes, ranges from yellow to reddish- brown to black. responsible for hair and eye color and provides protection against UV light. amount produced determined by genetics, UV light, hormones
freckles/ moles
accumulation of melanin
albanism
absence of melanin
carotene
yellow- orange pigment found in plants. accumulates in stratun corneum
hemoglobin
gives pinkish-red color, found in red blood cells
skin color and disease
redness, pallor, jaundice, bronzing, bruising
exposure to UV light
stimulates melanocytes to increase production of melanin
sunburn
the skin reacting to UV exposure
basal cell carcinoma
most common type. Cells in stratum affected, extend into dermis, cancer removed by surgery
squamous cell carcinoma
cells directly above stratum basal affected. Tumor can invade, metastasize and cause death
malignant melanoma
rare type. Arises from melanocytes in a mole, metastasis is common and often causes death
hair/ shaft
flexible strands of keritinized cells. Medulla is surrounded by hard cortex and covered by cuticle
root
below skin (scalp)
hair bulb
base of root, where hair is produced
hair follicle
group of cells that surroud root and bulb. EXTENSION OF EPIDERMIS, DEEP IN DERMIS
arrector pili
smooth muscle that surrounds each hair follicle. Contracts, hair becomes more perpendicular to skin and hairstands on end GOOSE BUMPS!
sebaceous glands
connected to hair follicle. Secretes sebum, oily substance that lubricates hair and skin to prevent drying (causes acne)
eccrine glands
all over body and open into sweat pores. Water and salt secretions
apocrine glands
open into hair follicle. Only in armpit and genitalia. Thick, rich secretion, become active during puberty and cause body odor.
nails
thin plates with layers of deat stratum corneum cells with hard keratin (unlike hair grow continually)
nail body
visual part
nail root
covered by skin
cuticle
stratum corneum that extends into nail body
nail matrix
continuation of nail root, gives rises to most of nail
nail bed
attaches to nail and is distal to nail matrix
lunula (moon)
small part of nail matrix, whitish/ crescent shaped are. Base of nail
1st degree burn
damages only epidermis. Redness, slight edema, pain. heals within 2-3 days (usually no scar). Includes sunburns or exposure to cold.
peeling protective
gets off the mutated nucleus
2nd degree burn
damages epidermis and upper dermis. Redness, edema, pain, blisters. heals in 2 weeks with some scarring. epidermis regenerates from epithelial tissue in hair follicles, sweat glands
3rd degree burn
destroys all epidermis and dermis. Burned areas are cherry red to clack to white. painless, nerve endings are destroyed. disfiguring, debilitating. skin graft might be necessaru (split skin, cadaver, artificial)
bone functions
support, protect, movement, storage, blood cell production
cartilage
reduce friction and model for bone formation
proteoglycans
large polysaccharides (carbohydrates) attached to proteins, part of ground substance, story water
bone's extracellular matrix consists of...
proteoglycans, collagen, water, and minerals