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deals with the structure (morphology) of the body and its parts, in other words, "what are things called?"
tissue (structural levels of body)
group of cells with similar structure and function plus extracellular substance
20 different types. contain an amine group and carboxyl group. amino acids are not stored so a daily supply is required
functions of proteins
used to make skin, hair, nails, muscles, and hemoglobin. act as enzymes, immune system functions. muscle contractions (actin and myosin), and part of cell membrane.
characteristics of lipids
contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. (ex. fats, oils, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids) Glycerol and fatty acids are the building blocks. Insoluable in water
functions of lipids
long term energy storage, insulates against heat loss, protective cushion for organs, cholesterol is part of the cell membrane structure
one or more double covalent bonds between carbons (ex. olive oil, fish oil, sunflower oil) healthier
form genes and take part in protein synthesis. they are bound into building blocks called nucleotides. DNA and RNA
4 functions of the cell
cell metabolism and energy use, synthesis of molecules, communication, reproduction and inheritance
form a double layer or bilayer. contain 2 regions; polar and nonpolar (fatty acid tail)
passive movement through cell membrane
requiring no energy from the cell (diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, and filtration) from region of higher to lower concentration
active movement through cell membrame
requiring cellular energy (active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis)
uses trans-membrane proteins that function as carriers to move larger molecules (such as glucose) across the cell membrane, from region of higher to lower concentration
process that brings materials into cell using vesicles, vesicles fuses with cell membrane. 2- phagocytosis (cell eating)/ pinocytosis (cell drinking)
process that carries materials out of cell using vesicles, vesicles fuse with cell membrane
muscle cells "talk" to other muscle cells, nerve cells "talk" to nerve cells, nerve cells "talk" to muscle cells...
a group of cells with similar structure and function plus a non-living portion called the extracellular matrix
attaches epithelial tissue to underlying tissues made of a meshwork of protein and other molecules. mostly proteins, stick epithelial tissue to connective tissue
small channels that- allow molecules to pass between cells, allow cells to communicate/ coordinate, are the most common
functions of connective tissue
enclose and seperate, connect tissues, support and movement, storage, cushion and insulate, transport, and protect
most rigid connective tissue, with deposits of mineral salts and collagen within the matrix. internally supports the body, protects, forms muscle attachments and is the site for blood cell formation.
the skin, also called the integumentary system. composed of stratified and dense connective tissues
line cavities and openings that lead to the outside of the body. consist of epithelium and connective tissue with specialized goblet cells that secrete mucus, including the oral and nasal cavities, and openings of the digestive, reproductive, respiratory, and urinary systems.
line body cavities and cover organs that ack opening to the outside. made up of epithelium and loose tissue. secrete serous fluid that acts as a lubricant for organs that rub against one anotheral.
line the joint cavities, consist of only connective tissues. line inside of joint cavities, secrete lubricating synovial fluid.
cells of same type develop (no scar), primarily by stem cell, normal function is restored
cells of a different type develop (scar), loss of some tissue function, adult heart, brain, cardiac/skeletal muscle
protection, sensation, temperature regulation, excretion, vitamin D production
1st major skin region (outside). composed of stratified squamous epithelium. outermost cells protect deeper replicating cells
process in which new cells push old cells to surface. (40-56 days for new cells to move to free surface.
produced by melanocytes, ranges from yellow to reddish- brown to black. responsible for hair and eye color and provides protection against UV light. amount produced determined by genetics, UV light, hormones
basal cell carcinoma
most common type. Cells in stratum affected, extend into dermis, cancer removed by surgery
squamous cell carcinoma
cells directly above stratum basal affected. Tumor can invade, metastasize and cause death
rare type. Arises from melanocytes in a mole, metastasis is common and often causes death
flexible strands of keritinized cells. Medulla is surrounded by hard cortex and covered by cuticle
smooth muscle that surrounds each hair follicle. Contracts, hair becomes more perpendicular to skin and hairstands on end GOOSE BUMPS!
connected to hair follicle. Secretes sebum, oily substance that lubricates hair and skin to prevent drying (causes acne)
open into hair follicle. Only in armpit and genitalia. Thick, rich secretion, become active during puberty and cause body odor.
thin plates with layers of deat stratum corneum cells with hard keratin (unlike hair grow continually)
1st degree burn
damages only epidermis. Redness, slight edema, pain. heals within 2-3 days (usually no scar). Includes sunburns or exposure to cold.
2nd degree burn
damages epidermis and upper dermis. Redness, edema, pain, blisters. heals in 2 weeks with some scarring. epidermis regenerates from epithelial tissue in hair follicles, sweat glands
3rd degree burn
destroys all epidermis and dermis. Burned areas are cherry red to clack to white. painless, nerve endings are destroyed. disfiguring, debilitating. skin graft might be necessaru (split skin, cadaver, artificial)
large polysaccharides (carbohydrates) attached to proteins, part of ground substance, story water
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