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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. stimulus equivalence
  2. stimulus
  3. behavior trap
  4. escape extinction
  5. contrived contingency
  1. a An energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells.
  2. b Any contingency of reinforcement (or punishment) designed and implemented by a behavior analyst or practitioner to achieve the acquisition, maintenance, and/or generalization of a targeted behavior change.
  3. c Behaviors maintained with negative reinforcement are placed on escape extinction when those behaviors are not followed by termination of the aversive stimulus; eliminating the target behavior does not enable the person to escape the aversive situation.
  4. d An interrelated community of contingencies of reinforcement that can be especially powerful, producing substantial and long-lasting behavior changes. Effective behavior traps share four essential features: (a) They are "baited" with virtually irresistible reinforcers that "lure" the student to the trap; (b) only a low-effort response already in the student's repertoire is necessary to enter the trap; (c) once inside the trap, interrelated contingencies of reinforcement motivate the student to acquire, extend, and maintain targeted academic and/or social skills; and (d) they can remain effect for a long time because students show few, if any, satiation effects.
  5. e The emergence of accurate responding to untrained and nonreinforced stimulus-stimulus relations following the reinforcement of responses to some stimulus-stimulus relations. A positive demonstration of reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity is necessary to meet the definition of equivalence.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Two kinds: (a) The occurrence alone of a stimulus that acquired its function by being paired with an already effective stimulus, or (b) the occurrence of the stimulus in the absence as well as in the presence of the effective stimulus. Both kinds of unpairing undo the result of the pairing: the occurrence alone of the stimulus that became a conditioned reinforcer; and the occurrence of the unconditioned reinforcer in the absence as well as in the presence of the conditioned reinforcer.
  2. Any stimulus made functional for the target behavior in the instructional setting that later prompts or aids the learner in performing the target behavior in a generalization setting.
  3. Any measurement of a learner's performance of a target behavior in a setting and/or stimulus situation in which direct training has not been provided.
  4. A decrease in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event caused by a motivating operation. For example, food ingestion abolishes (decreases) the reinforcing effectiveness of food.
  5. When an antecedent stimulus has a history of evoking a response that has been reinforced in its presence, the same type of behavior tends to be evoked by stimuli that share similar physical properties with the controlling antecedent stimulus.

5 True/False questions

  1. maintenanceTwo different meaning in applied behavior analysis: (a) the extent to which the learner continues to perform the target behavior after a portion or all of the intervention has been terminated (i.e. response maintenance), a dependent variable or characteristic of behavior; and (b) a condition in which treatment has been discontinued or partially withdrawn, an independent variable or experimental condition.


  2. setting generalizationThe extent to which a learner emits the target behavior in a setting or stimulus situation that is different from the instructional setting. Also called situation generalization.


  3. motivating operationAn environmental variable that (a) alters (increases or decreases) the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event: and (b) alters (increases or decreases) the current frequency of all behavior that have been reinforced by that stimulus, object, or event.


  4. ontogenyDescribes reinforcement (or punishment) that is delivered only after the target behavior has occurred.


  5. automaticityRefers to the fact that behavior is modified by its consequences irrespective of the person's awareness; a person does not have to recognize or verbalize the relation between her behavior and a reinforcing consequence, or even know that a consequence has occurred, for reinforcement to "work".