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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. automatic reinforcement
  2. automaticity
  3. establishing operation
  4. escape extinction
  5. sensory extinction
  1. a A motivating operation that establishes (increases) the effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as a reinforcer. For example, food deprivation establishes food as an effective reinforcer.
  2. b The process by which behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement are placed on extinction by masking or removing the sensory consequences.
  3. c Refers to the fact that behavior is modified by its consequences irrespective of the person's awareness; a person does not have to recognize or verbalize the relation between her behavior and a reinforcing consequence, or even know that a consequence has occurred, for reinforcement to "work".
  4. d Behaviors maintained with negative reinforcement are placed on escape extinction when those behaviors are not followed by termination of the aversive stimulus; eliminating the target behavior does not enable the person to escape the aversive situation.
  5. e Reinforcement that occurs independent of the social mediation of others (.e.g. scratching an insect bite relieves the itch).

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. An increase in the frequency of responding when an extinction procedure is initially implemented.
  2. A type of stimulus-to-stimulus relation in which the learner, without any prior training or reinforcement for doing so, selects a comparison stimulus that is the same as the sample stimulus (e.g. A-A). Reflexivity would be demonstrated in the following matching-to-sample procedure: the sample stimulus is a picture of a tree, and the three comparison stimuli are a picture of a mouse, a picture of a cookie, and a duplicate of the tree picture used as the sample stimulus. The learner selects the picture of the tree without specific reinforcement in the past for making the tree-picture-to-tree-picture match. It is also called generalized identity matching.
  3. A tact evoked by a novel stimulus that shares all of the relevant or defining features associated with the original stimulus.
  4. An increase in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is increased in reinforcing effectiveness by the same motivating operation. For example, food deprivation evokes (increases the current frequency of) behavior that has been reinforced by food.
  5. A stimulus change that increases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.

5 True/False questions

  1. unconditioned motivating operationA stimulus that acquires motivating operation (MO) effectiveness by preceding some form of worsening or improvement. It is exemplified by the warning stimulus in a typical escape-avoidance procedure, which establishes its own offset as reinforcement evokes all behavior that has accomplished that offset.


  2. satiationA decrease in responsiveness to repeated presentations of a stimulus; most often used to describe a reduction of respondent behavior as a function of repeated presentation of the eliciting stimulus over a short span of time; some researchers suggest that the concept also applies to within-session changes in operant behavior.


  3. indiscriminable contingencyA contingency that makes it difficult for the learner to discriminate whether the next response will produce reinforcement. Practitioners use indiscriminable contingencies in the form of intermittent schedules of reinforcement and delayed rewards to promote generalized behavior change.


  4. function-altering effectAn alternation in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event as a result of a motivating operation. For example, the reinforcing effectiveness of food is altered as a result of food deprivation and food ingestion.


  5. echoicAnyone who functions as a discriminative stimulus evoking verbal behavior. Different members may control different verbal behavior about the same topic because of a differential reinforcement history. Teens may describe the same event in different ways when talking to peers versus parents.