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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. unconditioned stimulus
  2. unconditioned negative reinforcer
  3. reinforcement
  4. behavior change tactic
  5. reflex
  1. a A stimulus that functions as a negative reinforcer as a result of the evolutionary development of the species (phylogeny); no prior learning is involved (e.g. shock, loud noise, intense light, extreme temperatures, strong pressure against the body).
  2. b The stimulus component of an unconditioned reflex; a stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any prior learning.
  3. c A technologically consistent method for changing behavior derived from one or more principles of behavior (e.g. differential reinforcement of other behavior, responses cost); possesses sufficient generality across subjects, settings, and/or behaviors to warrant its codification and dissemination.
  4. d A stimulus-response relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the respondent behavior it elicits (e.g. bright light-pupil contraction). Unconditioned and conditioned reflexes protect against harmful stimuli, help regulate the internal balance and economy of the organism, and promote reproduction.
  5. e Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. A behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior; sometimes called Type I punishment.
  2. A set of stimuli that share a common relationship. All stimuli in the set evoke the same operant behavior, or elicit the same respondent behavior.
  3. A group of stimuli that share specified common elements along formal (e.g. size, color), temporal (e.g. antecedent or consequent), and/or functional (e.g. discriminative stimulus) dimensions.
  4. A verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by both a motivating operation (MO) and a nonverbal stimulus; thus the response is part mand and part tact.
  5. A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is contingent on a response being different in some specified way (e.g. different topography) from the previous response or a specified number of previous responses or more).

5 True/False questions

  1. conditioned stimulusA previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher because of prior pairing with one or more other punishers; sometimes called secondary or learned punisher.


  2. arbitrary stimulus classAntecedent stimuli that evoke the same response but do not resemble each other in physical form or share a relational aspect such as bigger or under (e.g. peanuts, cheese, coconut milk, and chicken breasts if they evoke the responses "sources of protein).


  3. naturally existing contingencyAny contingency of reinforcement (or punishment) that operates independent of the behavior analyst's or practitioner's efforts; includes socially mediated contingencies contrived by other people and already in effect in the relevant setting.


  4. automatic reinforcementAn inclusive term referring in general to all of a person's learning experiences and more specifically to past conditioning with respect to particular response classes or aspects of a person's repertoire.


  5. textualA single instance or occurrence of a specific class or type of behavior. Technical definition: an action of an organism's effector. An effector is an organ at the end of an efferent nerve fiber that is specialized for altering its environment mechanically, chemically, or in terms of other energy changes.


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