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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. stimulus
  2. reinforcement
  3. spontaneous recovery
  4. conditioned punisher
  5. extinction
  1. a A behavioral effect associated with extinction in which the behavior suddenly begins to occur after its frequency has decreased to its prereinforcement level or stopped entirely.
  2. b An energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells.
  3. c A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher because of prior pairing with one or more other punishers; sometimes called secondary or learned punisher.
  4. d Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
  5. e The discontinuing of a reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior (i.e. responses no longer produce reinforcement); the primary effect is a decrease in the frequency of the behavior until it reaches a prereinforced level or ultimately ceases to occur.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Reinforcement that occurs independent of the social mediation of others (.e.g. scratching an insect bite relieves the itch).
  2. The basic process by which operant learning occurs; consequences (stimulus changes immediately following responses) result in an increased (reinforcement) or decreased (punishment) frequency of the same type of behavior under similar motivational and environmental conditions in the future.
  3. Changes in the behavior of people not directly treated by an intervention as a function of treatment contingencies applied to other people.
  4. An elementary verbal operant involving a spoken verbal stimulus that evokes a written, typed, or finger-spelled response. Like the textual, there is point-to-point correspondence between the stimulus and the response product, but no formal similarity.
  5. Behavior that is selected, maintained, and brought under stimulus control as a function of its consequences: each person's repertoire of operant behavior is a product of his history of interactions with the environment (ontogeny).

5 True/False questions

  1. value-altering effectDescribes reinforcement (or punishment) that is delivered only after the target behavior has occurred.


  2. reflexA stimulus-response relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the respondent behavior it elicits (e.g. bright light-pupil contraction). Unconditioned and conditioned reflexes protect against harmful stimuli, help regulate the internal balance and economy of the organism, and promote reproduction.


  3. imitationSomeone who provides reinforcement for verbal behavior. A listener may also serve as an audience evoking verbal behavior.


  4. conditioned stimulusA learned stimulus-response functional relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus (e.g. sound or refrigerator door opening) and the response it elicits (e.g. salivation); each person's repertoire of conditioned reflexes is the product of his or her history of interactions with the environment (ontogeny).


  5. divergent multiple controlWhen a single antecedent variable affects the strength of many responses.