5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- principle of behavior
- response-deprivation hypothesis
- reflexive conditioned motivating operation
- resistance to extinction
- a A stimulus that acquires motivating operation (MO) effectiveness by preceding some form of worsening or improvement. It is exemplified by the warning stimulus in a typical escape-avoidance procedure, which establishes its own offset as reinforcement evokes all behavior that has accomplished that offset.
- b Anyone who functions as a discriminative stimulus evoking verbal behavior. Different members may control different verbal behavior about the same topic because of a differential reinforcement history. Teens may describe the same event in different ways when talking to peers versus parents.
- c A model for predicting whether contingent access to one behavior will function as reinforcement for engaging in another behavior based on whether access to the contingent behavior represents a restriction of the activity compared to the baseline levels of engagement.
- d A statement describing a functional relation between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables with generality across organisms, species, settings, behaviors, and time (e.g. extinction, positive reinforcement); an empirical generalization inferred from many experiments demonstrating the same functional relation.
- e The relative frequency with which operant behavior is emitted during extinction.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Stimuli that share common physical forms or structures (e.g. made from wood, four legs, round, blue) or common relative relationships (e.g. bigger than, hotter than, higher than, next to).
- An operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others.
- Describes reinforcement (or punishment) that is delivered only after the target behavior has occurred.
- A stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus. Unconditioned reinforcers are the product of the evolutionary development of the species (phylogeny). Also called primary or unlearned reinforcer.
- A decrease in the frequency of operant behavior presumed to be the result of continued contact with or consumption of a reinforcer that has followed the behavior; also refers to a procedure for reducing the effectiveness of a reinforcer (e.g. presenting a person with copious amounts of a reinforcing stimulus prior to a session).
5 True/False questions
generalized conditioned reinforcer → A conditioned reinforcer that as a result of having been paired with many other reinforcers does not depend on an establishing operation for any particular form of reinforcement for its effectiveness.
response → All of the behaviors a person can do; or a set of behaviors relevant to a particular setting or task (e.g. gardening, mathematical problem solving).
punishment → Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
unconditioned reflex → An unlearned stimulus-response functional relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus (e.g. food in mouth) that elicits the response (e.g. salivation); a product of the phylogenic evolution of a given species; all biologically intact members of a species are born with similar repertoires of unconditioned reflexes.
behavioral contrast → A decrease in responsiveness to repeated presentations of a stimulus; most often used to describe a reduction of respondent behavior as a function of repeated presentation of the eliciting stimulus over a short span of time; some researchers suggest that the concept also applies to within-session changes in operant behavior.