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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. value-altering effect
  2. habituation
  3. mand
  4. naturally existing contingency
  5. environment
  1. a A decrease in responsiveness to repeated presentations of a stimulus; most often used to describe a reduction of respondent behavior as a function of repeated presentation of the eliciting stimulus over a short span of time; some researchers suggest that the concept also applies to within-session changes in operant behavior.
  2. b An elementary verbal operant that is evoked by a motivating operation (MO) and followed by specific reinforcement.
  3. c An alternation in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event as a result of a motivating operation. For example, the reinforcing effectiveness of food is altered as a result of food deprivation and food ingestion.
  4. d Any contingency of reinforcement (or punishment) that operates independent of the behavior analyst's or practitioner's efforts; includes socially mediated contingencies contrived by other people and already in effect in the relevant setting.
  5. e The conglomerate of real circumstances in which the organism or referenced part of the organism exists; behavior cannot occur in the absence of environment.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. A motivating operation whose value-altering effect depends on a learning history. For example, because of the relation between locked doors and keys, having to open a locked door is a conditioned motivating operation (CMO) that makes keys more effective as reinforcers, and evokes behavior that has obtained such keys.
  2. A stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus. Unconditioned reinforcers are the product of the evolutionary development of the species (phylogeny). Also called primary or unlearned reinforcer.
  3. The extent to which a learner emits the target behavior in a setting or stimulus situation that is different from the instructional setting. Also called situation generalization.
  4. Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
  5. When a single antecedent variable affects the strength of many responses.

5 True/False questions

  1. stimulus equivalenceThe emergence of accurate responding to untrained and nonreinforced stimulus-stimulus relations following the reinforcement of responses to some stimulus-stimulus relations. A positive demonstration of reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity is necessary to meet the definition of equivalence.


  2. reinforcer-establishing effectAn alteration in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is altered in effectiveness by the same motivating operation. For example, the frequency of behavior that has been reinforced with food is increased or decreased by food deprivation or food ingestion.


  3. transcriptionAn elementary verbal operant involving a spoken verbal stimulus that evokes a written, typed, or finger-spelled response. Like the textual, there is point-to-point correspondence between the stimulus and the response product, but no formal similarity.


  4. resistance to extinctionThe relative frequency with which operant behavior is emitted during extinction.


  5. antecedentAn environmental condition or stimulus change exiting or occurring prior to a behavior of interest.