5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- unconditioned stimulus
- verbal behavior
- establishing operation
- recovery from punishment procedure
- evocative effect
- a A motivating operation that establishes (increases) the effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as a reinforcer. For example, food deprivation establishes food as an effective reinforcer.
- b The occurrence of a previously punished type of response without its punishing consequence. This procedure is analogous to the extinction of previously reinforced behavior and has the effect of undoing the effect of punishment.
- c The stimulus component of an unconditioned reflex; a stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any prior learning.
- d An increase in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is increased in reinforcing effectiveness by the same motivating operation. For example, food deprivation evokes (increases the current frequency of) behavior that has been reinforced by food.
- e Behavior whose reinforcement is mediated by a listener; includes both vocal-verbal behavior (e.g. saying "Water, please" to get water) and nonvocal-verbal behavior (pointing to glass of water to get water). Encompasses the subject matter usually treated as language and topics such as thinking grammar, composition, and understanding.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Randomly varying functionally irrelevant stimuli within and across teaching sessions; promotes setting/situation generalization by reducing the likelihood that (a) a single or small group of noncritical stimuli will acquire exclusive control over the target behavior and (b) the learner's performance of the target behavior will be impeded or "thrown off" should he encounter any of the "loose" stimuli in the generalization setting.
- The occurrence of relevant behavior under different, nontraining conditions (i.e. across subjects, settings, people, behaviors, and/or time) without the scheduling of the same events in those conditions.
- A motivating operation whose value-altering effect does not depend on a learning history. For example, food deprivation increases the reinforcing effectiveness of food without the necessity of any learning history.
- Refers to the fact that behavior is modified by its consequences irrespective of the person's awareness; a person does not have to recognize or verbalize the relation between her behavior and a reinforcing consequence, or even know that a consequence has occurred, for reinforcement to "work".
- A statement describing a functional relation between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables with generality across organisms, species, settings, behaviors, and time (e.g. extinction, positive reinforcement); an empirical generalization inferred from many experiments demonstrating the same functional relation.
5 True/False questions
speaker → Someone who engages in verbal behavior by emitting mands, tacts, intraverbals, autoclitics, and so on. A speaker is also someone who uses sign language, gestures, signals, written words, codes, pictures, or any form of verbal behavior.
naturally existing contingency → Any contingency of reinforcement (or punishment) that operates independent of the behavior analyst's or practitioner's efforts; includes socially mediated contingencies contrived by other people and already in effect in the relevant setting.
feature stimulus class → Stimuli that share common physical forms or structures (e.g. made from wood, four legs, round, blue) or common relative relationships (e.g. bigger than, hotter than, higher than, next to).
contingency → The conglomerate of real circumstances in which the organism or referenced part of the organism exists; behavior cannot occur in the absence of environment.
extinction burst → An increase in the frequency of responding when an extinction procedure is initially implemented.