5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- functional relation
- operant behavior
- selection by consequence
- a A verbal statement summarizing the results of an experiment (or group of related experiments) that describes the occurrence of the phenomena under study as a function of the operation of one or more specified and controlled variables in the experiment in which a specific change in one event (the dependent variable) can be produced by manipulating another event (the independent variable), and that the change in the dependent variable was unlikely the result of other factors (confounding variables); in behavior analysis expressed as b = f(x1), (x2)..., where b is the behavior and x1, x2, etc. are environmental variables of which the behavior is a function.
- b A stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.
- c The fundamental principle underlying operant conditioning; the basic tenet is that all forms of (operant) behavior, from simple to complex, are selected, shaped, and maintained by their consequence during an individual's lifetime; Skinner's concept of selection by consequences is parallel to Darwin's concept of natural selection of genetic structures in the evolution of the species.
- d Behavior that is selected, maintained, and brought under stimulus control as a function of its consequences: each person's repertoire of operant behavior is a product of his history of interactions with the environment (ontogeny).
- e An environmental condition or stimulus change exiting or occurring prior to a behavior of interest.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Two different meaning in applied behavior analysis: (a) the extent to which the learner continues to perform the target behavior after a portion or all of the intervention has been terminated (i.e. response maintenance), a dependent variable or characteristic of behavior; and (b) a condition in which treatment has been discontinued or partially withdrawn, an independent variable or experimental condition.
- The state of an organism with respect to how much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contacted a particular type of reinforcer; also refers to a procedure for increasing the effectiveness of a reinforcer (e.g. withholding a person's access to a reinforcer for a specified period of time prior to a session).
- The history of the natural evolution of a species.
- An alternation in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event as a result of a motivating operation. For example, the reinforcing effectiveness of food is altered as a result of food deprivation and food ingestion.
- A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is contingent on a response being different in some specified way (e.g. different topography) from the previous response or a specified number of previous responses or more).
5 True/False questions
convergent multiple control → When a single antecedent variable affects the strength of many responses.
motivating operation → An environmental variable that (a) alters (increases or decreases) the reinforcing effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event: and (b) alters (increases or decreases) the current frequency of all behavior that have been reinforced by that stimulus, object, or event.
symmetry → Anyone who functions as a discriminative stimulus evoking verbal behavior. Different members may control different verbal behavior about the same topic because of a differential reinforcement history. Teens may describe the same event in different ways when talking to peers versus parents.
speaker → The activity of living organisms; it includes everything that people do. A technical definition: that portion of an organism's interaction with its environment that is characterized by detectable displacement in space and time of some part of the organism that results in a measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment.
transitivity → A derived (i.e. untrained) stimulus-stimulus relation (e.g. A= C, C = A) that emerges as a product of training two other stimulus-stimulus relations (e.g. A = B and B = C). For example, transitivity would be demonstrated if, after training the two stimulus—stimulus relations shown in (1) and (2) below, the relation shown in (3) emerges without additional instruction or reinforcement: (1) if A (e.g. spoken word bicycle) = B (e.g. the picture of a bicycle), and (2) B (the picture of a bicycle) = C (e.g. the written word bicycle), then (3) C (the written word bicycle) = A (the spoken name bicycle).