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OCS 1005 LSU FINAL (marine plants)
Terms in this set (81)
Nearly all the energy used by living organisms is derived directly or indirectly from what?
Plants use sunlight as a source of energy to fix what?
Carbon dioxide and nitrogen
transforms light energy into chemical bond energy (manufactures carbohydrate food molecules)
Used by plants for chemical synthesis, growth, and reproduction
Process where light energy used to synthesize organic molecules rich in stored energy
The immediate organic material produced from inorganic substances
Primary method of primary production
Does not require sunlight to form carbohydrates, but instead releases the energy held in the chemical bonds of hydrogen and sulfur containing compounds in order to construct glucose from carbon dioxide
Animals eat what to gain an adequate food supply?
Respiration (cellular) breaks down carbohydrates
Large molecules being broken down, and energy being liberated (used for metabolism)
Self nourishing organisms that make their own food (photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms)
Organisms such as animals that must consume other organisms, they are unable to synthesize own food molecules
A group of organisms linked together by complex feeding relationships
Accounts for 90-96% of oceanic carbohydrate production
Contributes to 2-5% of oceanic carbohydrate production
Seaweeds and chemosynthetic organisms
Total ocean productivity ranges from...
75 to 150 g C/m^2/yr
What is the marine total tons of metric carbon bound per year?
35-50 billion tons
The terrestrial productivity of the ocean is?
50-70 billion metric tons per year
The total plant biomass of the ocean is?
1-2 billion metric tons
the total plant biomass of land is?
600-1,000 billion metric tons
How can you measure primary productivity?
Use radioactive C-14, light bottle to dark bottle technique, measure chlorphyll content of ocean from satellites
Factors that limit productivity
Photosynthetic autotrophs require...(ocean)
water, carbon dioxide or carbon, Inorganic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, sunlight- can be very limited)
Autotrophs require inorganic nutrients to...
construct large organic molecules and construct skeletons or shells
What is the most common factor limiting primary productivity?
Lack of nutrients
There is very low primary productivity below this depth?
330 ft. (100 meters)
Green pigment, absorbs best in red and violet wavelengths, looks green because it reflects green light
what wavelenghts are absorbed near the ocean surface to about how deep?
red and infared wavelenghts, down to about 3 meters
How do some marine plants live in depths of 250 meters or deeper?
They have special accessory pigments that can absorb the dim blue light at depth and transfer energy to adjacent chlorophyll molecules (masking pigments)
What are accessory pigments?
Brown, tan, olive green, red, these give seaweed the characteristic color
Absence of accessory pigments allows what?
Allows bright green chlorophyll to shine through
Members of plankton community
drifting organisms that swim weakly, go where the ocean currents go
How do planktonic move?
can move vertically in water, cannot move laterally consistently in ocean
Their is large diversity in these organisms?
contains many different plant like species and virtually every major group of animals
a research vessel that used plankton nets
the autotrophs plant?
Two things critical to life on earth
contribution to food webs, generation of 02
Phytoplankton account for what percentage of the food made by photosynthesis on earth?
dominant, best studied type of phytoplankton, larger species barely visible to the unaided eye, 5600 species
phytoplankton that is round, elongated, branched, or triagular
converts 55% of the suns energy to carbohydrates chemical bonds
yellow or brown accessory pigments
mostly autotrophs, have two whip like flagella; one drives the organism forward and the other rotates it in the water, reproduces by simple fission
responsible for red tide (red coloring in ocean)
produce potent toxins, toxic to man, not filter feeders
Single- celled dinoflagellates that are symbiotic with coral (live within coral)
single celled autotrophs covered with disks of calcium carbonates
internal support structures made of silica
very small dwarf phytoplankton
most biological productivity of ocean occurs in the upper half of the photic zone, area near the surface
marine animals trap more energy than they use here
respire as they photosynthesize, sue some of the carbohydrates and o2 they produce
the depth below the depth of greatest productivity, not for zooplankton
oxygen depleted by the animals and not replaced by phytoplankton, also decompostition of biological debris
oxygen minimum zone
sunlit layer of water at the oceans surface, in the tropics it extends 200 meters, mid latitude water extends down to 100 meters
upper part of photic zone- sufficient light for plant production
lower part of the photic zone, insufficient light for photosynthesis
primary production nearly always higher than open ocean because nutrient levels are highest near the continents due to coastal upwelling and land run off (plankton most abundant there)
water that is generally nutrient deficient, nearly devoid of visible plankton due to strong thermocline which discourages vertical mixing necessary to bring up nutrients from the depths
the exception to the general rule of low tropical productivity
tropical coral reefs
during winter months has weeks or months of darkness, severly limited productivity; during summer months 24 hour daylight, and upwelling nutrients but nutrients are rapidly removed
Greatest productivity due to dependable light and moderate nutrient supply, and greatest of any open ocean area
temperate and subpolar zones
indicates plankton bloom in spring caused by increasing illumination, higher of two peaks
period of rapid phytoplankton growth where nonconservative nutrients are consumed and depleted
heterotrophic plankton, most numerous primary consumer of the ocean, graze on phytoplankton
most abundant zooplankton
copepods are what?
crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimp)
the average zooplankton is how big?
1-2 cm range
plankton larger than 1 cm
What are the largest marine animals?
whale, shark, and baleen whale
How do animals feed on zooplankton?
concentrate them into an area and consume them in vast quantities
Most marine autotrophs, large or small, are?
autotrophs possessing chlorophyll, capable of photosynthesis, lack vessels to conduct sap are?
single celled (diatoms and dinoflagellates)
large seaweed reaching 62 meters in length
green algae, lives near surface
brown algae, greater depth
red algae, greatest depth, dim light, biggest group
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