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321 terms

Dental Hygiene Head and Neck Anatomy

STUDY
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infra-
below or under
supra-
above or over
mental
pertains to the chin
external
outside
internal
inside
superior
above, greater or larger
artery
blood vessel that carries the blood away from the heart to the tissues and organs
vein
blood vessel that carries blood to the heart from tissues and organs
nerve
fibers that carry impulses between the brain and parts of the body; allows you to feel, touch pain and helps with movement
innervation
pertains to the nerve supply of a pary of the body
palpate
to examine by touch
anterior <vental>
toward the front
posterior <dorsal>
toward the back
medial
toward the middle <not necessarily in the middle>
lateral
toward the side or outside
buccal
towards the cheek
labio, labial
pertains to the lips
optic, ophthalmic
pertains to the eyes
naso, nasal
pertains to the nose
auricle, acoustic
pertains to the ears
sub-
below
superficial
on the surface
cutaneous
pertains to the skin
maxillary tuberosity
excess bone behind 3rd molar
canine fossa
lateral to canine eminence; depressions
alveolar process
sockets that hold teeth, covered by gingiva; resorbtion occurs
cheek
formed by:
-zygoma
-zygomatic arch <temoral process of the zygoma and zygomatic process of the temporal bone>
piriform aperture
outline of nose
infraorbital foramen
next to nose; hole below orbit and next to nose <lateral to nose>
carotid canal
in temporal bone; carries the internal carotid artery
hamulus
point on the medial pterygoid plate
lateral pterygoid plate
two; under upper jaw
foramen ovale
in sphenoid bone; mandibular division of the 5th cranial nerve of trigeminal nerve; posterior to the lateral pterygoid fossa
incisive foramen
opening for nasopalatine nerve which innervates the hard palate
anterior nasal spine
spine of nose
canine eminence
elevation of the bone over the canine root
vertex
highest point on top of skull along sagital suture
parietal eminence
"highest" point on each parietal bone
temporal fossa
indentation on side of head covering frontal, parietal, sphenoid and temporal bone
medial and lateral canthus
inner and outside corners of the eyes
superciliary ridge
ridge above eyebrows
glabella
flat area of nose between the eyebrows
median palatine suture
joins the right and left maxilla and palatine bones
transverse palatine suture
<across> joins maxilla and palatine bones
greater palatine foramen
larger hole in upper palate <in the palatine bones>
lesser palatine foramen
smaller hole in upper palate
mandibular notch
dip in jaw between the condyle and coronoid process
external oblique line
slope down the lateral side of ramus
mental foramen
hole in chin bone
modiolus
dimples
labiomental groove
groove above chin
mental protuberance
chin
deep
far below the surface
viscerocranium
suppors the face, contributes to our appearance
mandible
lower jaw bone
vomer
separates the nose
nasal bones
bridge of the nose
lacrimal bones
eye socket, next to ethmoid
zygomatic bones
cheek bones
inferior nasal conchae
bottom shelving in nose
maxilla
upper jaw bone
palatine bones
roof of the mouth
foramen
short opening through bone
canal
long opeing through bone
fissure
jagged opening in bone
optic foramen
hole all the way in the back of the eye socket
superior orbital fissure
between the greater and lesser wings of sphenoid
inferior orbital fissure
inbetween the sphenoid bone and palatine bones; below the superior orbital fissure
infraorbital groove
in the orbit of the eye and the tunnel runs though the palatine bones
tympanic portion
bone area around the external acoustic meatus
petrous portion
mastoid process; styloid process
mastoid process
protruding bone
styloid process
where tendons attach <pointy shaped bone>
suture
a joint in the cranium; appears as a jagged line where 2 bones meet; very slightly moveable; absorbs forced blows to the head
squamous
joins parietal and temporal bones
coronal
joins the frontal and parietal bones
sagittal
joins the two parietal bones
lambdoidal
joins occipital and pariental bones
bregma
intersection between coronal and sagital sutures
lambda
intersection between sagital and lambdoidal sutures
frontal eminence
bone in forehead
nasion
dip in the nose
sclera
white of the eye
iris
color of the eye
pupil
black center
zygomatic arch
temporal process of the zygoma; zygomatic process of the temporal bone
tragus
inner flap of ear
auricle
out lining of ear
external acoustic meatus
ear hole
temporomandibular joint <TMJ>
jaw joint; aligned with tragus
bridge of nose
length of nose
stylomastoid foramen
next to styloid; very small opening
jugular foramen
between occipital and temoral bones carries the internal vein and 9, 10, and 11 cranial nerves
foramen magnum
in occipital bone; carries spinal cord and 11 cranial nerve
condyle
jaw point; on end/pt of ramus
coronoid process
infront/anterior to condyle
coronoid notch
infront of coronoid process; slope
ptyergoid fovea
depression on aterior of condyle
ramus
lower jaw bone sides
angle of mandible
the slant of the jaw
body of mandible
the lower jaw from angle to angle
sternocleidomastoid muscle
lateral neck muscles
clavicle
colar bone
sternum
breast bone
supraclavicular fossa
area where clavical bones meet
neurocranium
cranital bones that protect the brain
frontal bone
forehead
parietal bone
top of the head; two bones left and right
occipital bone
back of the head
sphenoid bone
single bone but often appears paired
temporal bone
side of the head
ethmoid
in the eye socket on the nose side
squamous portion
includes: zygoma and zygomatic arch
apex of nose
point of nose
nasal septum
separates nostrils
alae
nose flares
nares
nostrils
philtrum
separation between the nose and lip
tubercle
center point of lips
nasolabial sulcus
laugh lines
labial commissure <angle of mouth>
angle/sides of the mouth/lips
genial tubercles/spines
boney bumps on the bottom of the mouth
lingual foramen
hole between the genial tubercles
mandibular fossa
the hole that the condyle fits into on the temporal bone
submandibular fossa
medial side of mandible; where submandibular salivary gland sits
sublingual fossa
mandibular lingual area; sublingual salivary gland sits
retromolar fossa
extra bone area behind the mandibular 3rd molars
mandibluar foramen
medial side of ramus
lingula
bone protection over mandibular foramen
mylohyoid groove
under the mandibular foramen; indention
mylohyoid line
ridge between submandibular fossa and sublingual fossa
foramen rotundum
located on the greater sphenoid bone
cribriform plate of ethmoid
spongy area
cristi galli
inside the skull on the frontal bone; between the cribiform plate of the ethmoid
hypophyseal fossa
pituitary gland sits here; dip in bottom of skull
hyoid bone
does not articulate with anthing; held in place by muscles and ligaments; allows mobility for speech and swallowing
pterygoid process of sphenoid
points of attachment for muscles of mastication
medial pterygoid plate
middle; inside of lateral
pterygoid of scaphoid fossa
dip/valley between lateral and medial
tempormandibular ligament
-origin = articular tuberble
-insertion = pterygoid fovea
-function = helps prevent from dislodging
sphenomandibular ligament
-origin = posterior nasal spine
-insertion = mandibular foramen
articular disk
sits inbetween the mandibular fossa and condyle; surrounded by synovial fluid in a capsule
stylomandibular ligament
-origin = styloid process
-insertion = angle of mandible
medial pterygoid
-origin = medial side of lateral pterygoid plate and lateral edge of palatine bone
-insertion = medial surface of ramus and angle of mandible
-function = elevates mandible; hinge
lateral pterygoid <inferior head>
-origin = lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate
-insertion = pterygoid fovea of mandible
-function = protrudes; hinge and gliding side-to-side
lateral pterygoid <superior head>
-origin = infratemporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid
-insertion = articular disk of TMJ
-function = draws condyle forward and depresses mandible <hinge, glide, side-to-side>
masseter <superfical head>
-origin = anterior 2/3 of lower border of zygomatic arch
-insertion = lateral surface of ramus coronoid process angle of mandible
-functiong = elevates mandible; hinge movement
masseter <deep head>
-origin = posterior 1/3 and medial surface of zygomatic arch
-insertion = lateral surface or ramus coronoid process angle of mandible
-function = elevates mandible; hinge movement
temporalis
"fan-like"
-origin = frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones, temporal fascia
-insertion = coronoid process and anterior border of ramus
-function = elevation and retrusion of mandible <hinge, gliding>
mentalis
-origin = anterior surface of mandible
-insertion = lower lip
-function = raises skin of chin, protrudes lower lip
buccinator
-origin = alveolar process of maxilla and mandible around molars and pterygomandibular raphe
-insertion = orbicularis oris
-function = pulls angle of mouth laterally; keeps food on occlusals
risorius
-origin = fascia over parotid gland
-insertion = angle of mouth
-function = widening of mouth into smile
palatoglossus
-origin = palate
-insertion = side of tongue
-function = elevates the root of the tongue
genioglossus
-origin = genial tubercles
-insertion = entire area under tongue
-funciton = protrudes tongue; depresses to floor of mouth; sticks it out
depressor labii inferioris
-origin = external oblique
-insertion = skin of lower lip
-function = draws lower lip downward
depressor anguli oris
-origin = external oblique
-insertion = angle of mouth
-function = depresses angle of mouth
levator labii superioris
-origin = on maxilla, just below infraorbital foramen
-insertion = upper lip
-function = elevates upper lip
levator anguli oris
-origin = canine fossa
-insertion = angle of mouth
-function = elevates angle of mouth
levator labii superioris alaque nasi
-origin = frontal process of maxilla
-insertion = alae of nose and skin of upper lip
-function = elevates upper lip and raises ale of nose
geniohyoid
-origin = genital tubercles
-insertion = body of hyoid
-function = elevate hyoid bone when mouth opens; assist temporalis in retracting the mandible
right lateral excursion
left lateral pterygoid muscle contracts causing anterior mandible shifts to right
lateral excursion
contraction of only one lateral pterygoid muscle causes deviation of the mandible to the other side
masticate
to chew
protrude
"protract"; to project or thrust forward
retrude
"retract"; backward movement
fascia
thin layer of connective tissue that convers, suppors, or connects muscles or inner organs
sphincter muscle
a muscle that surrounds and closes an orifice
nasi
nose
anguli
angle of mouth
labii
lip
levator
type of muscle that elevates or draws structure upward
depressor
type of muscle that depresses or draws structure downward
bucci
cheek
superioris
upper
orgination
"arise"; the end of the muscle that is attached to the structure that hardly moves
relaxation
decreases tension no movement
contraction
muscle fibers shorten causing movement
insertion
the end of the muscle that is attached to the structures that move
orbicularis oris
"kissing muscle"
-origin = muscles lateral to mouth and maxilla
-insertion = skin and muscous
-function = closes and protrudes lips <whistling>
digastric anterior belly
-origin = inner anterior
-insertion = lesser horn of hyoid bone
digastric posterior belly
-origin = mastoid process
-insertion = lesser hyoid bone
zyogmatic minor
-origin = zygoma
-insertion = skin of upper lip and orbicularis oris
-function = elevates angle of mouth
zygomaticus major
-origin = zygoma
-insertion = skin of upper lip and oribularis oris
-function = elevates angle
suprahyoid muscles
<above hyoid>
-function = all suprahyoid muscles: assist lateral pterygoid in depressing the mandible
mylohyoid muscle
-origin = mylohyoid line of mandible
-insertion = hyoid bone
hyoglossus
-origin = greater horn of hyoid bone
-insertion = side of tongue
-function = depresses tongue
styloglossus
-origin = styloid process and stylomastoid ligament
-insertion = side of tongue
-function = retracts tongue
infrahyoid muscles
<below hyoid bone>
-origin = sternum and clavicle
-insertion = lower surface of hyoid bone
-function = stablizes hyoid bone
inferioris
lower
central nervous system <CNS>
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system <pns>
all parts of the body are connected to the CNS by the PNS
autonomic nervous system
part of the PNS gives nerve supply to the heart, smooth muscle, and glands
nerve
bundle of axons and dendrites outside the CNS; sensory, motor, or both
stimulus
physical or chemical change in the environment that is detected by an organisms and leads to a response
receptor
a sensory nerve ending which respondes to a stimulus from the environment
afferent
sensory = towards the CNS
efferent
motor = away from the CNS
ganglion
cluster of cells located outside CNS
sympathetic nervous system
"Fight or Flight"; shuts down salivary gland secretion
parasympathetic nervous system
"Rest or Digest"; stimulation of salivary flow
regions of the brain
-cerebral hemisphere
-cerebellum
-brain stem
cerebral hemisphere landmarks
-longitudinal fissure
-central sulcus
-precentral gyrus
-postcentral gyrus
-corpus callosum
-cerebral lobes
longitudinal fissure
separates right and left cerebral hemisphere
central sulcus
separates frontal and parietal lobes <sulcus is a groove but not as deep as a fissure>
precentral gyrus
located on frontal lobe anterior to central sulcus
postcentral gyrus
located on parietal lobe posterior to central sulcus
corpus callosum
inferior to longitudinal fissure broad band of nerve fibers that joinds the right and left cerebral hemisphere
central lobes
named according to the bone in the skull to which they are most closely related
stroke
"CVA"; rupture of blood vessels in cerebrum; may result in paralysis or sensory loss; speech alteration
cerebellum
-location = posterior cranial fossa <inferior to the occipital lobes>
-function = muscle coordination; equilibrium maintance
-injury = loss of coordination
brain stem
-diencephalon
-midbrain
-pons
-medulla
diencephalon
sensory in formation comes together here and is passed on to cerebral hemisphere
thalamus
sensation of PPTT come here and then passed to post central gyrus in cerebrum
hypothalamus
located directly above pituitary gland - which is in the hypophyseal fossa- regulates ANS functions, body temp, appetite, saliva flow
midbrain, pons, and medulla
gives rise to 10 of the 12 cranial nerves <olfactory arise in cerebellum; optic arises in diencephalon>
cerebrospinal fluid
fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord; acts as portective shock aborber
frontal lobe
-locationg = anterior cranial fossa
-function = abstract thought; voluntary muscle control <fibers located in precentral gyrus>
parital lobe
-location = upper region of brain between frontal and occipital lobes
-function = receives sensation of PPTT <in postcentral gyrus>
temporal lobe
-location = middle cranial fossa <lateral fissure separates temporal lobe from frontal and parietal lobes>
-function = receives auditory stimuli; possibly recent memories
occipital lobe
-location = upper part of posterior cranial fossa and cerebellum
-function = vision
insula
-location = deep to temporal lobe
-function = unknown
olfactory
I; afferent
optic
II; afferent
oculomotor
III; efferent
trochlear
IV; efferent; moves eyeball out and down
trigeminal
V; ophthalmic; maxillary; mandibular
ophthalmic division
V1; afferent; sensation of PPTT of the forehead, eyes, eyelids; and midline of nose; goes through SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE <slit>
maxillary division
V2; afferent; sensations of PPTT from skin of cheek, lower eyelid, lateral nose, upper lip, maxillary sinus, roof of mouth, tonsils, gingiva and teeth of maxillary and nasopharynx; goes through FORAMEN ROTUNDOM
mandibular division
V3; afferent = PPTT from lower jaw, gingiva and teeth of mandible, tongue, TMJ, mucous membranes of cheek; efferent = movement of mandible for chewing and speech; goes through FORAMEN OVALE
abducens
VI; efferent
facial
VII; afferent = taste <sweet, sour, salty>; efferent = facial expression; regulation of saliva flow <submandibular and sublingual>; goes through internal acoustic meatus
vestibulocohlear
VIII; afferent; equilibrium and hearing
glossopharyngeal
IX; afferent = taste <bitter>; efferent = regulation of saliva flow <parotid gland>; goes through JUGULAR FORAMEN
vagus
X; afferent = tastes bitter; efferent; goes through JUGULAR FORAMEN
spinal accessory
XI; efferent
hypoglossal
XII; efferent = movement of tongue; extrinsic tongue muscles
ophthalmic nerve
V1; PPTT branches off the trigeminal nerve and exits the skull through the SUPERIOR ORIBITAL FISSURE
maxillary nerve
V2; all branches afferent sensory; branches off the trigeminal nerve and exits the skull through FORAMEN ROTUNDUM
infraorbital nerve
goes through inferior oribital fissure -->infraorbital groove-->infraorbital foramen
cutaneous branches
sensory; PPTT; lower eyelid; skin of cheek; ala of nose; upper lip; branches off the infraorbital nerve
anterior superior alveolar nerve <ASA>
sensory: PPTT; maxillary sinus, maxillary incisors and canines, and facial gingiva; branches off the infraorbital fissure
middle superior alveolar nerve <MSA>
sensory; PPTT; maxillary sinus ,maxillary premolars, mesiobuccal root of maxillary 1st molar and buccal gingiva; branches off the infraorbital fissure
posterior superior alveolar nerve <PSA>
sensory; branches directly off maxillary nerve; PPTT; maxillary molars <3rd, 2nd, palatal and distobuccal roots of 1st> and buccal gingiva and maxillary sinus
pharyngeal
sensory from pharynx
lesser palatine
sensory; PPTT; tonsils and mucosa of the soft palate; goes through LESSER PALATINE FORAMEN; pterygopalatine branches of maxillary nerve
greater palatine
sensory; PPTT; post 2/3 of hard palate and lingual gingiva <lingual gingiva of canines, premolars and molars>; goes through GREATER PALATINE FORAMEN
nasopalatine
sensory; PPTT; anterior 1/3 of hard palate <lingual gingiva of maxillary incisors>; goes throught INCISIVE CANAL <FORAMEN>
posterior superior lateral nasal nerve
nasopharynx and nasal conchae
zygomatic nerve
-zygomaticofacial = skin over zygoma
-zygomaticotemporal
mandibular nerve
V3; mixed; branches off the trigeminal nerve and exits the skull through the FORAMEN OVALE
inferior alverolar nerve
goes through the MANDIBULAR FORAMEN and travles in the MANDIBULAR CANAL
dental branches
sensory; mandibular premolar and molar teeth; branches off the inferior alveolar nerve
incisive nerve
sensory; mandibular incisor and conine and facial and buccal gingiva; branches off the inferior alveolar nerve
mental nerve
sensory; mucous membranes and skin of lower lip and chin; goes through MENTAL FORAMEN; branches off the inferior alveolar nerve
lingual nerve
sensory; anterior 2/3 of tongue, lingual mandibular gingiva, mucosa of floor of mouth
auriculotemporal
sensory; parotid branch = parotid glang does NOT cause secretion from the parotid gland
long buccal nerve
sensory; buccal gingiva of mandibular premolars and molars, buccal mucous, and skin of lower cheek
nerve to later pterygoid
motor
anterior and posterior deep temporal nerves
motor; temporalis muscle
masseteric nerve
motor; sensory; branch to masseter <motor>; branch to TMJ <sensory>
medial pterygoid nerve
motor; medial pterygoid muscle
mylohoid nerve
motor mylohoid muscle and anterior belly of digastric; branch of inferior alveolar
chorda tympani
mixed; sensory = taste anterior 2/3 of tongue <sweet, sour, salty>; motor = regulates salivation from submandibular and sublingual glands
digastric nerve
motor; motor to posterior belly of digastric muscle
stylohyoid nerve
motor; motor to stylohyoid muscle
temporofacial division: zygomatic
motor; motor to zygomaticus major and minor
temporofacial division: buccal
motor; motor to levator facial muscles: levator labii superior, levator labii superior alaq nasi, levator anguli oris, orbicularis oris, risorios, buccinator
cervicofacial division: buccal
motor; motor to levator facial muscles
cervicofacial division: mandibular
motor; motor to depressor facial muscles; depressor labii inferioris, depressor anguli oris, mentalis
cervicofacial division: cervical
motor; motor to platysma <superficial muscle covering each side of neck>
lesser pertrosal nerve
motor; regulates salivation from parotid gland
stylopharyngeal nerve
motor; motor to stylopharyngeus muscle which contracts during swallowing
lingual
sensory; receives PPTT sensations and information on bitter taste from posterior 1/3 of the tongue
carotid sinus nerve
sensory; blood pressure regulation
pharyngeal
mixed; sensory - PPTT sensations from pharynx; motor - motor to all muscles of the pharnyx except STYLOPHARYNGEAL; all but 1 of soft palate
superior laryngeal nerve
mixed; sensory - bitter taste from 1/3 of the tongue; sensory/motor - to larynx
inferior laryngeal nerve
mixed; sensory and motor to larynx
right external carotid artery
divides into: ascending pharyngeal, facial artery, lingual artery, superficial temporal artery, maxillary artery
ascending pharygeal artery
palatine branch
palatine branch
- soft palate
- palatine tonsils
facial artery
branches off below angle of mandible; divides into: submental, inferior labial branch, superior labial branch, ascending palatine branch, tonsillar branch
submental branch
sublingual and submandibular glands; mylohyoid; geniohyoid; anterior belly digastric
inferior labial branch
lower lip; depressors muscles
superior labial branch
upper lip; levator muscles
ascending palatine branch
muscles of pharynx
tonsillar branch
main supply palatine tonsils; hypoglossus
lingual artery
branches off at level of hyoid bone; divides into: sublingual branch, dorsal lingual branch, deep lingual branch
sublingual branch
sublingual gland and floor of the mouth
dorsal lingual branch
hypoglossus; back of tongue; tonsils; epiglottis; soft palate
deep lingual branch
apex of tongue
superficial temporal artery
does through the parotid gland; divides into: branch to TMJ, transverse facial artery
branch to TMJ
TMJ
transverse facial artery
parotid gland; masseter muscle
maxillary artery
route through infra-temporal fossa to pterygopalatine fossa; divides into: pterygoid region, pterygopalatine region, mandibular region
pterygoid region
in infratemporal fossa; divides into: buccal branch, pterygoid branch, posterior and anterior deep temporal branch, masseteric branch
buccal branch
buccinator
posterior and anterior deep temporal branches
temporalis
masseteric branch
masseter
pterygopalatine region
in pterygopalatine fossa - between pterygoid process and maxillary tuberosity; divides into: pharyngeal artery, sphenopalatine, descending palatine artery, infraorbital, posterior superior alveolar artery
pharyngeal artery
upper pharynx
sphenopalatine artery
nasopalatine branch: goes through incisive foramen, anterior 1/3 hard palate and gingiva
descending palatine artery
greater palatine; lesser palatine
greater palatine artery
goes through GREATER PALATINE FORAMEN; posterior 2/3 hard palate and gingiva
lesser palatine artery
goes through LESSER PALATINE FORAMEN; soft palate and palatine tonsils
infraorbital artery
goes throught INFERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE --> GROOVE --> INFRAORBITAL FORAMEN; divides into: anterior superior alveolar branch, middle superior alveolar branch, labial branches, nasal branches
anterior superior alveolar branch
maxillary anterior teeth <canine>; gingiva; maxillary sinus
middle superior alveolar branch
maxillary premolars; gingiva; maxillary sinus
labial branches
cheek; upper lip
nasal branches
side of nose
posterior superior alveolar artery
maxillary molar <all 3 roots>; gingiva; maxillary sinus
mandibular region
behind ramus; divides into: deep auricular branch, inferior alveolar artery
deep auricular branch
TMJ
inferior alveolar artery
divides into: mylohyoid branch, lingual branch, dental branch, alveolar branch, incisive branch, mental branch
mylohyoid branch
travels along mylohyoid groove and muscle; flood of mouth
lingual branch
tongue and sublingual gland
dental branches
mandibular premolars and molar teeth
alveolar branches
PDL; buccal and lingual gingiva of mandible, premolars, and molars
incisive branch
dental and alveolar branches
dental branches
mandibular incisors and canines
alveolar branches
PDL, buccal and lingual gingiva of mandibular incisors and canines
mental branch
goes through MENTAL FORAMEN; chin; mucous membrane lower lip