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below or under


above or over


pertains to the chin






above, greater or larger


blood vessel that carries the blood away from the heart to the tissues and organs


blood vessel that carries blood to the heart from tissues and organs


fibers that carry impulses between the brain and parts of the body; allows you to feel, touch pain and helps with movement


pertains to the nerve supply of a pary of the body


to examine by touch

anterior <vental>

toward the front

posterior <dorsal>

toward the back


toward the middle <not necessarily in the middle>


toward the side or outside


towards the cheek

labio, labial

pertains to the lips

optic, ophthalmic

pertains to the eyes

naso, nasal

pertains to the nose

auricle, acoustic

pertains to the ears




on the surface


pertains to the skin

maxillary tuberosity

excess bone behind 3rd molar

canine fossa

lateral to canine eminence; depressions

alveolar process

sockets that hold teeth, covered by gingiva; resorbtion occurs


formed by:
-zygomatic arch <temoral process of the zygoma and zygomatic process of the temporal bone>

piriform aperture

outline of nose

infraorbital foramen

next to nose; hole below orbit and next to nose <lateral to nose>

carotid canal

in temporal bone; carries the internal carotid artery


point on the medial pterygoid plate

lateral pterygoid plate

two; under upper jaw

foramen ovale

in sphenoid bone; mandibular division of the 5th cranial nerve of trigeminal nerve; posterior to the lateral pterygoid fossa

incisive foramen

opening for nasopalatine nerve which innervates the hard palate

anterior nasal spine

spine of nose

canine eminence

elevation of the bone over the canine root


highest point on top of skull along sagital suture

parietal eminence

"highest" point on each parietal bone

temporal fossa

indentation on side of head covering frontal, parietal, sphenoid and temporal bone

medial and lateral canthus

inner and outside corners of the eyes

superciliary ridge

ridge above eyebrows


flat area of nose between the eyebrows

median palatine suture

joins the right and left maxilla and palatine bones

transverse palatine suture

<across> joins maxilla and palatine bones

greater palatine foramen

larger hole in upper palate <in the palatine bones>

lesser palatine foramen

smaller hole in upper palate

mandibular notch

dip in jaw between the condyle and coronoid process

external oblique line

slope down the lateral side of ramus

mental foramen

hole in chin bone



labiomental groove

groove above chin

mental protuberance



far below the surface


suppors the face, contributes to our appearance


lower jaw bone


separates the nose

nasal bones

bridge of the nose

lacrimal bones

eye socket, next to ethmoid

zygomatic bones

cheek bones

inferior nasal conchae

bottom shelving in nose


upper jaw bone

palatine bones

roof of the mouth


short opening through bone


long opeing through bone


jagged opening in bone

optic foramen

hole all the way in the back of the eye socket

superior orbital fissure

between the greater and lesser wings of sphenoid

inferior orbital fissure

inbetween the sphenoid bone and palatine bones; below the superior orbital fissure

infraorbital groove

in the orbit of the eye and the tunnel runs though the palatine bones

tympanic portion

bone area around the external acoustic meatus

petrous portion

mastoid process; styloid process

mastoid process

protruding bone

styloid process

where tendons attach <pointy shaped bone>


a joint in the cranium; appears as a jagged line where 2 bones meet; very slightly moveable; absorbs forced blows to the head


joins parietal and temporal bones


joins the frontal and parietal bones


joins the two parietal bones


joins occipital and pariental bones


intersection between coronal and sagital sutures


intersection between sagital and lambdoidal sutures

frontal eminence

bone in forehead


dip in the nose


white of the eye


color of the eye


black center

zygomatic arch

temporal process of the zygoma; zygomatic process of the temporal bone


inner flap of ear


out lining of ear

external acoustic meatus

ear hole

temporomandibular joint <TMJ>

jaw joint; aligned with tragus

bridge of nose

length of nose

stylomastoid foramen

next to styloid; very small opening

jugular foramen

between occipital and temoral bones carries the internal vein and 9, 10, and 11 cranial nerves

foramen magnum

in occipital bone; carries spinal cord and 11 cranial nerve


jaw point; on end/pt of ramus

coronoid process

infront/anterior to condyle

coronoid notch

infront of coronoid process; slope

ptyergoid fovea

depression on aterior of condyle


lower jaw bone sides

angle of mandible

the slant of the jaw

body of mandible

the lower jaw from angle to angle

sternocleidomastoid muscle

lateral neck muscles


colar bone


breast bone

supraclavicular fossa

area where clavical bones meet


cranital bones that protect the brain

frontal bone


parietal bone

top of the head; two bones left and right

occipital bone

back of the head

sphenoid bone

single bone but often appears paired

temporal bone

side of the head


in the eye socket on the nose side

squamous portion

includes: zygoma and zygomatic arch

apex of nose

point of nose

nasal septum

separates nostrils


nose flares




separation between the nose and lip


center point of lips

nasolabial sulcus

laugh lines

labial commissure <angle of mouth>

angle/sides of the mouth/lips

genial tubercles/spines

boney bumps on the bottom of the mouth

lingual foramen

hole between the genial tubercles

mandibular fossa

the hole that the condyle fits into on the temporal bone

submandibular fossa

medial side of mandible; where submandibular salivary gland sits

sublingual fossa

mandibular lingual area; sublingual salivary gland sits

retromolar fossa

extra bone area behind the mandibular 3rd molars

mandibluar foramen

medial side of ramus


bone protection over mandibular foramen

mylohyoid groove

under the mandibular foramen; indention

mylohyoid line

ridge between submandibular fossa and sublingual fossa

foramen rotundum

located on the greater sphenoid bone

cribriform plate of ethmoid

spongy area

cristi galli

inside the skull on the frontal bone; between the cribiform plate of the ethmoid

hypophyseal fossa

pituitary gland sits here; dip in bottom of skull

hyoid bone

does not articulate with anthing; held in place by muscles and ligaments; allows mobility for speech and swallowing

pterygoid process of sphenoid

points of attachment for muscles of mastication

medial pterygoid plate

middle; inside of lateral

pterygoid of scaphoid fossa

dip/valley between lateral and medial

tempormandibular ligament

-origin = articular tuberble
-insertion = pterygoid fovea
-function = helps prevent from dislodging

sphenomandibular ligament

-origin = posterior nasal spine
-insertion = mandibular foramen

articular disk

sits inbetween the mandibular fossa and condyle; surrounded by synovial fluid in a capsule

stylomandibular ligament

-origin = styloid process
-insertion = angle of mandible

medial pterygoid

-origin = medial side of lateral pterygoid plate and lateral edge of palatine bone
-insertion = medial surface of ramus and angle of mandible
-function = elevates mandible; hinge

lateral pterygoid <inferior head>

-origin = lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate
-insertion = pterygoid fovea of mandible
-function = protrudes; hinge and gliding side-to-side

lateral pterygoid <superior head>

-origin = infratemporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid
-insertion = articular disk of TMJ
-function = draws condyle forward and depresses mandible <hinge, glide, side-to-side>

masseter <superfical head>

-origin = anterior 2/3 of lower border of zygomatic arch
-insertion = lateral surface of ramus coronoid process angle of mandible
-functiong = elevates mandible; hinge movement

masseter <deep head>

-origin = posterior 1/3 and medial surface of zygomatic arch
-insertion = lateral surface or ramus coronoid process angle of mandible
-function = elevates mandible; hinge movement


-origin = frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones, temporal fascia
-insertion = coronoid process and anterior border of ramus
-function = elevation and retrusion of mandible <hinge, gliding>

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