The fate of the Confederate leaders after 1865 was that all were eventually pardoned.
was that all were eventually pardoned.
In the postwar South the economy was
At the end of the Civil War, many white Southerners still believed that
their view of secession was correct.
Freedom for Southern blacks at the end of the Civil War came
haltingly and unevenly in different parts of the conquered Confederacy.
For blacks, emancipation meant all of the following:
the ability to search for lost family; the right to get married; the opportunity to form their own churches; and the opportunity for an education.
In 1865, Southern blacks often began traveling to
test their freedom, search for family members, and seek economic opportunity.
The "Exodusters" westward move to Kansas faltered when
steamboat captains refused to transport them across the Mississippi.
The greatest achievements of the Freedmen's Bureau were in
The white South viewed the Freedmen's Bureau as a
meddlesome federal agency that threatened to upset white racial dominance.
Andrew Johnson was made Lincoln's running mate in 1864 because
Johnson was a Democrat and a loyal unionist from a Southern state.
In President Andrew Johnson's view, the Freedmen's Bureau was
an agency that should be killed.
As vice president, Andrew Johnson
advocated states' rights.
As a politician, Andrew Johnson developed a
reputation as a champion of the poor whites.
The controversy surrounding the Wade-Davis Bill and the readmission of the Confederate states to the Union demonstrated
the deep differences between President Lincoln and Congress.
In his 10 percent plan for Reconstruction, President Lincoln promised
rapid readmission of Southern states into the Union.
That the Southern state were
"conquered provinces" and therefore at the mercy of Congress for readmission to the Union, was the view of congressional Republicans.
President Johnson's plan for Reconstruction
took away the right to vote from Confederate leaders and wealthy planters.
The main purpose of the Black Codes
was to ensure a stable labor supply.
The Black Codes provided for all of the following:
a ban on jury service by blacks; punishment of blacks for idleness; a bar on blacks from renting land; and fines for blacks who jumped labor contracts.
To many Northerners, the Black Codes seemed to
indicate that possibly the North had not really won the Civil War.
Congress objected to the readmission of Southern states to the Union under Johnson's plan because
the states had adopted Black Codes that limited the civil rights of freed slaves; the states had been readmitted without consultation with Congress; many former Confederates were elected to high political office in those states; and it feared that the restored South would be stronger than ever in national politics.
For congressional Republicans, one of the most troubling aspects of the Southern states' restoration to the Union was that the
South would be stronger than ever in national politics.
The incident that caused the clash between Congress and President Johnson to explode into the open was
Johnson's veto of the bill to extend the Freedmen's Bureau.
The Freedmen's Bureau was a
postwar welfare agency for former slaves and was quite successful at providing education for former slaves.
The first ex-Confederate state to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and
thus be readmitted to the Union under congressional Reconstruction was Tennessee.
The Fourteenth Amendment
guaranteed citizenship to freed slaves.
The Fourteenth Amendment
prohibited ex-Confederate leaders from holding public office.
In the 1866 congressional elections, voters
endorsed the congressional approach to Reconstruction.
The basis of the battle between Congress and President Andrew Johnson was
Johnson's "10 percent" governments that had passed severe Black Codes.
Both moderate and radical Republicans
agreed that freed slaves must be granted the right to vote.
Radical congressional Reconstruction of the South
finally ended when the last federal troops were removed in 1877.
Congressional Reconstruction hoped to
provide basic rights and protection for the former slaves in the South through the Military Reconstruction Act, Freedmen's Bureau Act, Fourteenth Amendment, and Force Acts.
Radical Republican leaders in Congress included
Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania; Charles Sumner of Massachusetts; and Hiram Revels of Mississippi.
As part of their Reconstruction plan,
radical Republicans originally expected to secure civil rights for freed slaves; punish the planter aristocracy; restructure Southern society; have President Johnson on their side, and use federal power to aid blacks.
Reconstruction involved extended
controversies over readmission of Southern states into the Union, civil and political rights for former slaves, direction and control of the Reconstruction process, and treatment of former Confederate leaders.
Reconstruction might have been more successful if
Thaddeus Stevens's radical program of drastic economic reforms and stronger protection of political rights had been enacted.
Blacks in the South
relied on the Union League to educate them on their civic duties.
African-American women assumed new political roles which included all of the following: participating in black church life; monitoring state constitutional conventions; participating in political rallies; and organizing mass meetings.
Radical Reconstruction state governments passed
much desirable legislation and badly needed reforms.
Most "radical" Reconstruction regimes in the South expanded
the legal rights of women; established public-school systems; and were troubled by graft and corruption.
Under congressional Reconstruction, Southern states were required to
ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and give freed slaves the right to vote.
Political corruption during Reconstruction was
present in both North and South.
Among the legacies of the Reconstruction effort were
a long-term eclipse of Republican party strength in Southern states; perpetuation of the ideas of states' rights and local self-government under the Constitution and a sense of resentment and grievance among white Southerners.
Methods used by Ku Klux Klan members to achieve their goal of
white supremacy included beatings, scare tactics, murder, and mutilation.
The goals of the Ku Klux Klan included all of the following:
"keep blacks in their place," that is, subservient to whites; prevent blacks from voting; keep white "carpetbaggers" from voting; and end radical Reconstruction.
Congress's impeachment of President Johnson and attempt to remove him from office were
directly precipitated by his dismissal of Secretary of War Stanton in 1867.
All of the following were reasons the Senate voted to acquit President Andrew Johnson:
opposition to abusing the Constitutional system of checks and balances; concern about the person who would become President; fears of creating a destabilizing period; and Johnson's promise to stop obstructing Republican policies.
In 1867 Secretary of State Seward accomplished an
enduring success in foreign relations for the Johnson administration when he purchased Alaska from Russia.