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26 terms

Chapter Ten

STUDY
PLAY
Cognition
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing remembering, and communicating
Concept
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people
Prototype
A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method of including items in a category
Algorithm
A methodical. logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
Heuristic
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently
Insight
A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
Confirmation Bias
The tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
Fixation
The inability to see a problem from a new perspective
Mental Set
A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
Functional Fixedness
The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions, an impediment to problem solving
Representativeness Heuristic
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes. This may lead one to ignore other relevant information
Availability Heuristic
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory. If events come immediately to mind, we think they are common.
Overconfidence
The tendency to be more confident than correct
Framing
The way an issue is presented
Belief Bias
The tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seeming invalid
Belief Perseverance
Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Language
Our spoken written or signed words and ways we combine them to communicate learning
Phoneme
In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
Morpheme
In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning, may be a word, prefix, suffix, etc
Grammar
In a language, a system of rules that enable us to communicate with and understand others
Semantics
The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words and sentences given
Syntax
The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
Babbling Stage
Beginning at about four months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
One-Word Stage
The stage in speech development from about age 1 to 2 during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
Telegraphic Speech
Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram using mostly nouns and verbs
Linguistic Determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think