SPMS Exams for science... STUDY IF U WANT GOOD GRADE! There is alot; acutally 210!!! Good luck on exams SPMS!!! chapters 1,2,10,11,12,13,15 are all in the exams and all these chapters are in this set. Jan. 9th= S2 & S3 exams. Jan 10th= S4 & B2 Jan. 11= B3 & B4

### science

An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.

### observing

the process of using one or more of your senses to gather information.

### quantitative observation

An observation that deals with a number or amount.

### qualitative observation

observation that deals with characteristics that cannot be expressed by numbers.

### inferring

when you explain or interpret the things you observe.

### predicting

making a forecast of what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence.

### classifying

The process of grouping together items that are alike in some way.

### making models

the process of creating representations of complex objects or processes.

### evaluating

comparing observations and data to reach a conclusion about them.

### scientific investigation

A systematic approach to solving problems.

### metric system

decimal system of measurement based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of 10.

### International System of Units (SI)

a system of measurement based on multiples of ten and on established measures of mass, length, and time.

### mass

the amount of matter in an object.

### weight

A measure of the force of gravity on an object.

### volume

the amount of space an object takes up.

### density

the amount of matter in a given space.

### estimate

An approximation of a number based on reasonable assumptions.

### accuracy

a measure of how close a measurement comes to the actual or true value of whatever is measured.

### precision

a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another.

### significant figures

all the digits that can be known precisely in a measurement, plus a last estimated digit.

### percent error

the percent that a measured value differs from the accepted value.

### mean

the average of a set of data.

### median

The middle number in a set of numbers that are listed in order.

### mode

The number that occurs most often in a set of data.

### range

the difference between the greatest and least numbers in a set of data.

### anomalous data

data that does not fit with the rest of a data set.

### graph

A diagram showing the relation between variable quantities, typically of two variables measured along a pair of lines at right angles.

### linear graph

a line graph in which the data points yield a straight line.

### nonlinear graph

a line graph in which the data points do not fall along a straight line.

### scientific inquiry

The ongoing process of discovery in science; the diverse ways in which scientist study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence they gather.

### hypothesis

possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question.

### variables

factors that can change in an experiment.

### independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

### dependent variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

### controlled experiment

a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all other variables the same.

### data

evidence; information gathered from observations.

### observational research

gathering primary data by observing relevant people, actions, and situations.

### opinion-based research

Research that involves investigators asking people questions using surveys and interviews.

### skepticism

the idea that nothing can ever be known for certain.

### personal bias

the researcher allowing personal beliefs to affect the outcome of a study.

### cultural bias

an aspect of an intelligence test in which the wording used in questions may be more familiar to people of one social group than to another group.

### experimental bias

a mistake in the design of an experiment that makes a particular result more likely.

### ethics

the principles of right and wrong that guide an individual in making decisions.

### objective

having actual existence or reality; not influenced by emotion or personal prejudice.

### subjective

influenced by personal feelings; occurring or taking place within the mind; unreal; Ex. subjective sensation of the ghostly presence.

### deductive reasoning

reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.).

### inductive reasoning

deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").

### life science

study of living systems and how they interact.

### Earth and space science

The study of Earth and its place in the universe.

### physical science

the study of matter and energy.

### scientific theory

a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.

### scientific law

a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions.

### model

a pattern, plan, representation, or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept.

### system

a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation.

### input

Data that is entered into the computer system via an input or storage device.

### process

A number of steps that one takes in order to do or make something.

### output

the amount produced; product or yield: the daily output of automobiles.

### feedback

output that changes the system in some way.

### element

any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.

### atom

smallest particle of an element.

### compound

a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds.

### molecule

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.

### DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics.

### cell

basic unit of structure and function in living things.

### microscope

an instrument that makes small objects look larger.

### cell theory

idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells.

### cellular respiration

process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.

### photosynthesis

process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.

### diffusion

process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.

### cell division

process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells.

### cell wall

a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell.

### organelle

A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell.

### ribosome

small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein.

### mitochondria

the organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.

### endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

a cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.

### Golgi apparatus

stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.

### vacuole

storage structures for food, water, minerals, waste (think of this as a vacuum).

### chloroplast

organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.

### lysosome

cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell.

### cell cycle

the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.

### interphase

the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions.

### replication

the process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus.

### chromosome

threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.

### mitosis

the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the dna is distributed into each daughter cell.

### cytokinesis

The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.

### cell

basic unit of structure and function in living things.

### cell membrane

a cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.

### nucleus

The organelle that contains the DNA and controls the processes of the cell.

### cytoplasm

a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.

### tissue

a group of similar cells that perform the same function.

### muscle tissue

A body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move.

### nervous tissue

tissue that receives messages from the body's external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response.

### epithelial tissue

tissue that covers the surface of the body and lines internal organs.

### organ

group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.

### organ system

group of organs that work together to perform a specific function.

### skeleton

the inner framework made up of all the bones of the body.

### skeletal muscle

A muscle that is attached to the bones of the skeleton and provides the force that moves the bones.

### joint

A place in the body where two bones come together.

### nutrient

a substance in food that provides energy or helps form body tissues and that is necessary for life and growth.

### absorption

The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into your blood.

### gland

an organ of the body that secretes one or more hormones.

### stimulus

a change in an organism's surroundings that causes the organism to react.

### response

an action or change in behavior that occurs as a result of a stimulus.

### hormone

a chemical that serves as a messenger. Each hormone is secreted by a gland and travels to one or more target organs, where it brings about responses.

### homeostasis

the maintenance of a stable internal environment.

### stress

the reaction of the body and mind to everyday challenges and demands.

### vertebrae

26 small bones that make up your backbone.

### ligament

strong connective tissue that holds bones together in movable joints.

### compact bone

Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone.

### spongy bone

Layer of bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone.

### marrow

soft fatty tissue that fills most bone cavities and is the source of blood cells.

### cartilage

a connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together.

### osteoporosis

a condition in which the body's bones become weak and break easily.

### involuntary muscle

a muscle that is not under conscious control.

### voluntary muscle

A muscle that is under conscious control.

### smooth muscle

involuntary muscle found inside many internal organs of the body.

### striated muscle

muscle attached to the skeleton, making movement possible.

### cardiac muscle

Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart.

### tendon

strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.

### epidermis

The outer layer of the skin.

### dermis

The middle layer of the skin.

### melanin

a pigment that gives the skin its color.

### pore

an opening through which sweat reaches the surface of the skin.

### follicle

a structure in the dermis of the skin from which a strand of hair grows.

### calorie

amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius.

### enzyme

protein that speeds up a chemical reaction.

### esophagus

a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.

### peristalsis

wavelike contraction of the walls of the intestines, which propels contents onward.

### villi

tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine.

### circulatory system

heart, blood vessels, blood.

### heart

a hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.

### atrium

upper chamber of the heart that receives and holds blood that is about to enter the ventricle.

### ventricle

lower chamber of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart.

### valve

a flap of tissue that prevents blood from flowing backward.

### artery

a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.

### aorta

the largest artery in the body.

### capillary

a tiny blood vessel where substances are exchanged between the blood and the body cells.

### vein

a blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart.

### hemoglobin

specialized protein that carries oxygen on red blood cells.

### pharynx

throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx.

### trachea

windpipe; tube through which air moves.

### cilla

hairlike projections that beat debris that collects in the lower airway upward.

### bronchi

The passages that branch from the trachea and direct air into the lungs.

### lungs

two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration.

### alveoli

tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood.

### diaphragm

Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing.

### larynx

voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords.

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