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a theocratic islamic republic in the Middle East in western Asia


a monarchy with an emperor as head of state

Persian Gulf

a shallow arm of the Arabian Sea between Iran and the Arabian peninsula,

Persian Wars

Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)


the ancient Greek known as the father of history


the act of competing as for profit or a prize


overbearing pride evidenced by a superior manner toward inferiors

mountain pass


turning point




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