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Ch.10 DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis

Mr. Satinoff Tuesday, January 10th test. A + WON!!!
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Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Acronym for DNA stands for?
Deoxyribose
What is the sugar that makes up the backbone called?
Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine and Guanine
What are the 4 nitrogen containing bases of DNA?
Cytosine and Thymine
Which of the bases are single ringed pyrimidines?
Adenine and Guanine
Which of the bases are double ringed purines?
Guanine
What base matches with cytosine in DNA?
Thymine
Which base matches with adenine in DNA?
Double Helix
What is the shape of DNA?
Weak Hydrogen Bonds
What bonds hold the nitrogen containing base pairs together in the center of the molecule of DNA?
Covalent Bonds
What type of bond holds the nitrogen containing bases to the sugar/phosphate backbone of the DNA molecule?
Replication
The process of copying or making new DNA is called?
Helicases
What enzyme breaks the bonds in the center of DNA to unzip the molecule or separate the chains of DNA?
Replication Fork
The point at which the 2 chains of DNA separate
DNA polymerase
Moves along the 2 separated chains, new chains are assembled complimentary to the existing chain.
Nucleotide
Consists of a sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen containing base pair.
mutation
A change in a nucleotide sequence
ribonucleic acid
The acronym RNA stands for
ribose
The sugar in RNA
-ose
Sugar ending
uracil
Instead of thymine, an RNA molecule contains this base
uracil
What does adenine match with in RNA?
cytosine
What does guanine match with in RNA?
messenger RNA
mRNA stands for
Single strand 1/2 ladder
The structure of mRNA is what shape?
mRNA Function
Carries genetic information from DNA to ribosome
Transfer RNA
tRNA stands for?
Clover T-shape
tRNA structure?
tRNA function
Writes the code from mRNA and ensembles amino acids into polypeptide chain proteins
Ribosomal RNA
rRNA stands for?
Globular
rRNA structure?
rRNA function
rRNA + Protein = Ribosome
Transcription
Process of making a strand of mRNA from DNA is called?
Ribosome
Where does translation occur?
Nucleus
Where does transcription occur?
Translation
The process of assembling polypeptides from mRNA (making proteins) is called?
Ribosomes
What is composed of rRNA and proteins, they are free in the cytosol and attached to the rear.
Nuclear Pore
When the mRNA leaves the nucleus to go to the ribosome, from where does it leave?
AUG
Start codon that engages the ribosome to being translation
UAA, UAG and UGA
Stop codons that cause the ribosome to stop translation
Codon
Each combination of 3 nucleotides is called a?
Amino Acid
Each codon codes for a specific what?
Divide by 3 = 5
If a chain of bases is 15 nucleotides in length how many amino acids could be produced?
Protein
Amino acids form a polypeptide chain also known as a what?
-ase
Enzyme ending
Replication, Transcription, Translation
Protein synthesis order? (Alpha)
8 carbons
How many carbons in a purine?
6 carbons
How many carbons in a pyrimidine?
Purine
What is double carbon?
Pyrimidine
What is single carbon?
Peptide Bonds
Holds amino acids together to make proteins
Polymerase
Enzyme that zips hydrogen bonds
Replication
What occurs in the nucleus ONLY!!!?
Protein
What is 60% of a humans dry weight?
1 amino acid
Every 3 bases=?
9
3 amino acids = how many base pairs?
100%
Percent of bases must equal?