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Science Olympiad-Anantomy-Skeletal

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Osteogenic cells
undergo the process of mitosis and form osteoblasts
Osteoblasts
form bone matrix by secreting collagen; no mitosis
Osteocytes
Mature cells, develop from osteoblasts, control day-to-day activities (each occupies a lacuna, a pocket sandwiched between layers of matrix
Osteoclasts
remodeling: when blood calcium level is low, these cells break down bone to release calcium and phosphorous
Bone Lining Cells
made from osteoblasts along the surface of most bones in adults, regulates the movement of calcium and phosphate into and out of the bone
Hematopoiesis
the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
Hyaline Cartilage
most common, tips of bones at joints, soft part of the nose, supporting rings of the trachea. Prominent in early development
Elastic Cartilage
matrix packed with elastic fibers, making it more flexible. found in external ear and epiglottis of larynx
Fibrocartilage
few lacunae and chondrocytes. matrix packed with collagen fibers. found in the intervertebral disks, knee menisci and pubic symphisys
Periosteum
Tough, tight-fitting membrane that coves a bone's surface and contains blood vessels that transport nutrients into the bone
Lacunae
means "little lake," small pockets situated between lamellae containing osteocytes of compact bone.
Haversian Canal
longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels and nerves
Osteon
basic functional unit of the bone
Spongy Bone
Type of bone that is light and has pores found near joints
Endosteum
vascular membrane that lines the inner surface of long bones
lamellae
concentric, ring-linke arrangement of bone tissue
Perforating Canal
connect central canals and hold blood vessels and nerves
Compact Bone
tightly solid, strong bone tissue resistant to bending
Diaphysis
the main section of a long bone
Epiphysis
the end of a long bone
Medullary Cavity
cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow
Articular Cartilage
thin hyaline cartilage layer that covers epiphyses of bones in synovial joints
Canaliculi
small canals radiating in all directions from launae, allowing for communication between osteocytes
Epiphyseal Plate
cartilage plate between epiphysis and diaphysis and allows growth to occur
Trabeculae
sponge like apperance of the cancellous bone
Cancellous Bone
bone connecting trabeculae; also known as spongy bone
Metaphysis
the growing part of a long bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis
Spinal Stenosis
Narrowing of the neural canal or nerve root canals in the lumbar spine.
Achondroplasia
an inherited skeletal disorder beginning before birth
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
a form of rheumatoid arthritis that affects children
Ankylosing spondylitis
a form of arthritis thats effects the spine and adjaciant structures
Osteosarcoma
malignant bone tumor
Osteoporosis
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
Disc Herniation
rupture of the soft tissue that separates two vertebral bones into the spinal canal
Scoliosis
an abnormal lateral curve to the vertebral column