Geos 101 Chapter 1 and Chapter 2

STUDY
PLAY
Geography
is the science that studies the relationships among natural systems, geographic areas, society, cultural activities, and the interdependence of all of these over space.
Spatial
refers to the nature and character of physical space, its measurement, and the distribution of things within it.
Ex: think of your own route to the classroom or library today or the way you get to work and how you used your knowledge of street patterns, traffic trouble spots, one-way streets, parking spaces, or bike rack locations to minimize walking distance.
Geographic science into five spatial themes.
1. Location, 2. Region, 3. human- Earth relationships,4. movement, 5. Place
Spatial Analysis
Within these five geographic themes, a method rather than a specific body of knowledge governs geography. The method is ____. Using this method, geography synthesizes (brings together) topics from many field, integrating information to form a whole- Earth concept.
Process
A set of actions or mechanisms that operate in some special order, is central to geographic analysis.
As examples, in Geo systems, numerous processes are involved in Earth's vast water-atmosphere-weather system, or in continental crust movements and earthquake occurrences, or in ecosystem functions, or in a river's drainage basin dynamics.
Physical Geography
the spatial analysis of all the physical elements and and process systems that make up the environment: energy, air, water, weather, climate, land forms, soils, animals, plants, microorganisms, and Earth itself,
Scientific Method
1. Question: Recognize an unsolved problem
2. Observation: Make Observation, review existing data
3. Hypothesis: Formulate a testable hypothesis
4. Experiment/ Data Collection:test your hypothesis
5. Analysis: Compare your test results from your hypothesis and other test and see if your results agree or disagree with your hypothesis
If your results disagree with your hypothesis, you reject.
-If your results agree with your hypothesis, you FAIL to reject
6. Explanation:Draw conclusions from your results
James Hutton
Father of Geologody
Recognized earth as super old
Uniformitarianism: fundamental principles of science- same natural laws and process that operate in the universe now and from the past.
"the present is the key to the past" and vice versa
Rev. Dr. William Buckland
English theologian
Recognized world wide boulder deposits (evidence of flood)
First proposed the under fit stream but be evidence of flood but know we know the valley was formed a glacier.
Geoges Cuvier
Recognized that extinctions occurs and catastrophic events
Charles Lyell
British lawyer and geologist
popularized Huttons ideas about Uniformitarianisms, but challenged cuviers catastrophism
Louis Agassiz
proposed ice age theory
explained world wide deposits that look like floods
based on glacial deposits
Catastrohpism
the theory that the earth has been affected in the past but sudden, short lived violent events, possibly world wide in scope
Sedimentary Archives
includes sedimentary rocks, ice, ocean sediments,etc.
Earth is considered a closed system except the sun...
Earth is an open system in terms of energy because solar energy enters freely and heat energy leaves, gong back into space. Most natural systsm are open in terms of energy.
Water cannot be created or destroyed but it can be cycled, conservation of mass
...
In a closed system:
matter is not created or destroyed but rather recycled
Closed Systems:
A system that is shut off from the surrounding environment so that it is self-contained in a ___ system.
Open System:
Systems in nature are generally not self-contained: Inputs of energy and matter flow into the system, and outputs of energy and matter flow from the system.
-
System Feedbacks
positive and negative feedbacks
Negative feedback
If the ___ information discourages change in the system, it is a ____ feedback.
Such feedback informs and causes self-regulation in a natural system, stabilizing the system.
Does not promote change in a system
Ex: Moose and Wolf population
Increase in wolves in the beginning, which reduces the moose population since the mooses are being eaten by the wolves, this makes wolves sick, which increase sick wolds, which at the end, decrease wolves at the end since they die of sickness, this is a ____ feedback
Positive Feedback
Cuases a system to change, this is not a good thing.
this stimulates system changes.
ex. Global climate change creates an example of positive feedback as meltponds increase on ice sheets, glaciers, and ice shelves world wide. Meltponds are darker and reflect less sunlight, they have a lower albedo, or reflectivity. Therefore, they absorb more solar energy which in turn, melts more ice, which forms more meltponds . This ____ feedback loop is in operation, further enhancing the effects of higher temperatures and warming trends.
Continental Crust is
Thick
Thresholds
also known as a tipping point, where it can no longer maintain its character, so it lurches to anew operational level.

This abrupt change places the system in a metastable equilibrium, An example of such a condition is a hillside or a coastal bluff that adjusts after a sudden landslide. A new equilibrium is eventually achieved among slope, materials, and energy over time.

This threshold concept raises concern in the scientiffic community, especially if some natural systems reach their tipping-point limits.
Ex: The relatively sudden collapse of ice shelves surrounding a portion of Antarctica, the sudden crack up of ice shelves on the north coast of Ellesmere Islands, Canada, and the recent extinctions of animal species serves as examples of systems at a threshold that are changing to a new status.
Example: Red Rock Pass dam broke, causing Bonneville Flood ,Bonneville flood-lake level threshold was reached causing red rock pass (natural dam) to fail 14,500 years ago
Biosphere
Living System
The intricate, interconnected web that links all organisms with their physical environment.
It is the area in which physical and chemical factors form the context of live. It exists in the overlap among the abiotic or nonliving spheres, extending from the seafloor, the upper layers of the crustal rock,etc.
Lithosphere/ Geosphere
Earth's crust and a portion of the upper mantle directly below the crust form the _____. The crust is quite brittle compared with the layers deep beneath the surface, which move slowly in response to an uneven distribution of heat energy and pressure.
(Soil Layers i the edaphosphere and generally convers earth' s land surfaces)
Includes Continental & Oceanic Crusts and the Uppermost Mantle
Hydrosphere
Earth's waters exist in the atmosphere, on the surface, and in the crust newar the surface. Collectively, these waters form the ___. That portion of the ____ that is frozen is the cryosphere - ice sheets, ice caps, and fields, glaciers, ice shelves, sea ice, and subsurface grounds.

All water (fresh water, ocean, groundwater, precipitation, snowmelt, ice, glaciers...!
Includes:
Cryosphere = solid water (ice & snow)
Atmosphere = water vapor
Atmosphere
thin, gaseous veil surroungind earth, held to the planet by the force of gravity. Formed by gases arsing from within Earth's crust and interior and the exhalations of all life overtime,etc.
Coal is
THE CARBON CYCLE
Biosphere: Peat (plant material formed in wetlands)
Hydrosphere: Forms the peat, buries organic material (anoxic)
Lithosphere: Coal (compacted, lithified plant material)
Atmosphere: Burn the coal, release CO2 into atmosphere
layers of the earth
http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/inside.html
What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
A hypothesis is an attempt to explain phenomena. It is an educated guess.
A theory is considered to be true because multiple hypotheses support the theory.
How does a law differ from a theory?
A law is a verbal or mathematical statement that describes some aspect of the universe.
It is based on repeated experimental observations.
A law always applies under the same conditions.
Scientific laws do not try to explain the 'why' the observed event happens, but only that the event actually occurs the same way over and over.
Solar radiation is important because...
(Solar Radiation is referred to as insolation
Insolation = incoming solar radiation (more on this later)
Powers the weather/climate system (atmosphere, winds)
Fuels thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes
Is the basis for life on earth
Keeps the hydrologic cycle in motion
Helps with the weathering (breakdown) process in rocks
Atmosphere
-Structure
Thermosphere
(Mesoplause)
Mesosphere
(Stratopause)
Stratosphere
(Tropopause)
Troposphere
Atmosphere
-Composition
Nitrogen
Oxygen
water
argon
carbon dioxide
neon
helium
methane
hydrogen
nitrous oxide
ozone
Atmosphere
-Circulation
the atmosphere circulates both chemical and energy
can one system be changed without impacting another system?
No!
Some records may no longer exist because ...
Some records no longer exist. We cannot carry out an experiment that encompasses these timescales.
If a system responds to a change in input by moving further away from its equilibrium condition, what type of feedback has occurred?
Positive
Radio waves have a ________ wavelength than visible light and are therefore ________ energetic.
Longer, less
Solar radiation enters the atmosphere as __________________________, but is reflected back from the Earth as ______________________________.
shortwave radiation, longwave radiation
Solar radiation that is intercepted by Earth is called:
insolation
The most extreme northern and southern parallels to experience perpendicular rays of the Sun at local noon are located at:
23.5º north and south
The sun produces which of the following?
mainly visible light and infrared energy
Dynamic equilibrium referst to a
a system that remains constant and some conditions recur.
During winter in the Northern Hemisphere,
The Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the sun.
Which of the following surfaces has the highest albedo?
snow