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Jay Gould

Some guy who was important in railroads I think and he like bent the law but never got in trouble because he didn't really break the law

Philip Armour

The meat industry arose on his back as well as Gustavus F. Swift's

Russell Conwell

A Reverend of Philadelphia, he became rich by delivering his lecture "Acres of Diamonds" thousands of times. In it he said, "There is not a poor person in the U.S. who was not made poor by his own shortcomings"

Herbert Spencer

Developed the survival-of-the-fittest theories with William Graham Sumner. He coined the phrase "survival of the fittest," not Darwin. This social thinker emphasized the rigidity of natural law, while occasionally borrowing evolutionary jargon to engage contemporary audiences. He said: "These millionaires are a product of natural selection. What do social classes owe each other? Nothing."

James Buchanan Duke

Absorbed his main competitors into the American Tobacco Company in 1890. He donated to Trinity College, which then changed its name to Duke University


Government activities seeking to dissolve corporate trusts and monopolies

company town

A town or city in which much or all real estate, buildings (both residential and commercial), utilities, hospitals, small businesses such as grocery stores and gas stations, and other necessities or luxuries of life within its borders are owned by a single company

Interstate Commerce Act

Congressional legislation that established the Interstate Commerce Commission, compelled railroads to publish standard rates, and prohibited rebates and pools. Railroads quickly became adept at using the Act to achieve their own ends, but the Act gave the government an important means to regulate big business.


People who believe that the government should be abolished as unnecessary.

pure and simple unionism

Coined by Samuel Gompers, president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), in a speech at the 1890 AFL convention in Detroit in which he opposed the inclusion of political parties in trade union organizations.

closed shop

Employment for union members only: a place of work in which the employer has agreed to employ only members of a particular labor union.

Sherman Act

A law that forbade trusts or combinations in business, this was landmark legislation because it was one of the first Congressional attempts to regulate big business for the public good. At first the law was mostly used to restrain trade unions as the courts tended to side with companies in legal cases. In 1914 the Act was revised so it could more effectively be used against monopolistic corporations.

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