Chapter 11 Vocab.
Terms in this set (14)
the process in which chromosomal DNA is copied before mitosis or meiosis.
the shape of a DNA molecule formed when two twisted DNA strands are coiled into a springlike structure and held together by hydrogen bonds between the bases
a carbon ring structure found in DNA or RNA that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen; includes adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil
a set of three nitrogenous bases that represents an amino acid; order of nitrogenous bases in mRNA determines the type and order of amino acids in a protein
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
RNA that transports information from DNA in the nucleus to the cell's cytoplasm
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
RNA that makes up the ribosomes; clamps onto mRNA and uses its information to assemble amino acids in the correct order
the process in the cell nucleus where enzymes make an RNA copy of a DNA strand
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
RNA that transports amino acids to the ribosomes to be assembled into proteins
the process of converting information in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in a protein
mutation that occurs at the chromosome level resulting in changes in the gene distribution to gametes during meiosis; caused when parts of chromosomes break off or rejoin incorrectly
mutation that occurs when a single base is added or deleted from DNA; causes a shift in the reading of codons by one base
any agent that can cause a change in DNA; includes high-energy radiation, chemicals, or high temperatures.
any change or random error in a DNA sequence
mutation in a DNA sequence; occurs from a change in a single base pair
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