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20 terms

AP Biology - Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration

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fermentation
partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen
oxidation
loss of electrons from one substance
reduction
addition of electrons to one substance
reducing agent
the electron donor in a redox reaction
oxidizing agent
the electron acceptor in a redox reaction
NAD+
electron acceptor and oxidizing agent for cellular respiration and fermentation
electron transport chain
a sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP
oxidative phosphorylation
the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain
substrate-level phosphorylation
mode of ATP synthesis that occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate from a substrate molecule to ADP, rather than adding inorganic phosphate to ADP
acetyl CoA
the entry compound for the Krebs Cycle in cellular respiration
ATP synthase
the enzyme that makes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate
cytochromes
an iron-containing protein that is a component of electron transport chains in the mitochodria and the membranes of prokaryotic cells
proton-motive force
the potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across a biological membrance
net products of Glycolysis
2 Pyruvate, 2 H20, 2ATP, 2NADH +2H+
products of Krebs Cycle
4CO2, 6NADH+6H+, 2ATP, 2FADH2
net products of ETC
34-38 ATP + 6H2O
products of pre-Krebs Cylcle
2 Acetyl CoA, 2 CO2, 2NADH + 2H+
obligate anaerobes
carry out only fermentation or anaerobic respiration (cannot survive in the prescence of oxygen)
faculative anaerobes
can make enough ATP to survive using either fermentation or respiration
beta oxidation
a metabolic sequence that breaks the fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments, which enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA