V. States of Consciousness (2-4%)

Understanding consciousness and what it encompasses is critical to an appreciation of what is meant by a given state of consciousness. The study of variations in consciousness includes an examination of the sleep cycle, dreams, hypnosis, and the effects of psychoactive drugs.
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Consciousness
A person's awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment, which is used to organize behavior.
Altered State of Consciousness
State in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness.
Depressants
Slows the functioning of the central nervous system, examples include; alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines.
Stimulants
Speeds up the activity of the central nervous system, examples include; amphetamine, cocaine, methamphetamine, and tobacco.
Opiates
Provide loss of sensitivity to pain and induce sleepiness, examples include; codeine, morphine, and heroin.
Hallucinogens
Changes a person's perception, thinking, emotions, and self awareness, examples include; LSD, PCP, marijuana, and mushrooms.
Drug Dependence
A person's need for a drug in order to function normally.
Drug Addiction
The compulsive use of a substance, despite its negative or dangerous effects.
Drug Tolerance
To need a higher dose of the substance to attain the same effect.
Drug Withdrawal
To abruptly stop using the substance.
William James
Stream of Consciousness.
Sigmund Freud
He came up with the idea of manifest content and latent content.
Manifest Content
The images of the dream that a person can recall.
Latent Content
The deeper, underlying meaning of a dream.
Hypnosis
A state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggestion.
Suggestibility
Being readily influenced.
Basic Suggestion Effect
Gives people an excuse to do things they might not otherwise do because the burden of responsibility for their actions falls on the hypnotist.
Pain
Hypnosis is a handy way to help people relax and control pain.
Dissociate
Break a connection with something. It is used to relieve pain or a feeling through putting the attention of the subject to something else.
Ernest Hilgard
He is inventor of the Hypnosis as Dissociation. He thinks that while hypnotized the immediate conscious mind of a person drifts a way in some relaxed state. But a part of the mind ("hidden observer") stays fully aware of everything that's happening.
Social-Cognitive Theory of Hypnosis
It assumes that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state but are merely playing the role expected from them in the situation.
Daydreaming
A form of consciousness involving fantasies that are usually spontaneous, they occur while a person is awake.
Walking Consciousness
When a person is awake and alert.
Adaptive Theory of Sleep
When a person sleeps to avoid the patterns of predators.
Restorative Theory
Sleep that replenishes chemicals and repairs cellular damage.
Non-REM Sleep
Sleep that encompasses stages 1,2,3, and 4.
REM Sleep
Sleep stage in which the sleeper experiences dreams, high brain activity, and sleep paralysis.
Sleep Stage 1
The lightest sleep stage.
Sleep Stage 2
The most common sleep stage in which the brain can still process auditory information.
Sleep Stage 3 and 4
The two deepest stages of sleep.
Repression
Freud's theory that states that we forget dreams because they would produce anxiety if we remembered them.
Interference
The theory that states that we forget dreams because our brain is working to wake up.
Hypersomnia
Excessive daytime sleepiness.
Parasomnia
The behavior that disturbs a person's sleep.
Narcolepsy
A sleep disorder that causes excessive sleepiness and frequent daytime sleep attacks. There is no cure, but some prescriptions can control or reduce the symptoms.
Insomnia
Having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep through the night. Some drugs can help, therapy from psychologists can also help treat the symptoms.
Sleep Apnea
A common disorder in which a patient has one or more pauses in breathing or shallow breaths while you sleep. Lifestyle changes such as losing weight and quitting smoking can help control these symptoms, as well as a machine called the CPAP.
Night Terrors
Feelings of great fear experienced on suddenly waking in the night interrupting Non-REM sleep. Stress-reducing therapy can help reduce these symptoms.
Nightmares
Frightening or unpleasant dreams. Anxiety treatment can help reduce the symptoms.
Anesthetic Awareness
The situation that occurs when a patient under general anesthesia becomes aware of some or all events during surgery or a procedure, and has direct recall of those events.
Enuresis
Urination during sleep, typically occurs during stage 4.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
The unexpected, sudden death of a child under age 1 in which an autopsy does not show an explainable cause of death. Parents can prevent this by having their child sleep in a crib on their back in the same room as their parents.
Somnambulism (Sleepwalking)
A disorder that occurs when people walk or do another activity while they are still asleep, typically in stage 3 or 4.